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:question: mod/dynamic_modint.hpp

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#pragma once

#include "mod/modint_common.hpp"
#include "mod/primitive_root.hpp"
#include "mod/barrett.hpp"

template <int id>
struct Dynamic_Modint {
  static constexpr bool is_modint = true;
  using mint = Dynamic_Modint;
  u32 val;
  static Barrett bt;
  static u32 umod() { return bt.umod(); }

  static int get_mod() { return (int)(bt.umod()); }
  static void set_mod(int m) {
    assert(1 <= m);
    bt = Barrett(m);
  }

  static Dynamic_Modint raw(u32 v) {
    Dynamic_Modint x;
    x.val = v;
    return x;
  }
  Dynamic_Modint() : val(0) {}
  Dynamic_Modint(u32 x) : val(bt.modulo(x)) {}
  Dynamic_Modint(u64 x) : val(bt.modulo(x)) {}
  Dynamic_Modint(int x) : val((x %= get_mod()) < 0 ? x + get_mod() : x) {}
  Dynamic_Modint(ll x) : val((x %= get_mod()) < 0 ? x + get_mod() : x) {}
  Dynamic_Modint(i128 x) : val((x %= get_mod()) < 0 ? x + get_mod() : x){};

  mint& operator+=(const mint& rhs) {
    val = (val += rhs.val) < umod() ? val : val - umod();
    return *this;
  }
  mint& operator-=(const mint& rhs) {
    val = (val += umod() - rhs.val) < umod() ? val : val - umod();
    return *this;
  }
  mint& operator*=(const mint& rhs) {
    val = bt.mul(val, rhs.val);
    return *this;
  }
  mint& operator/=(const mint& rhs) { return *this = *this * rhs.inverse(); }
  mint operator-() const { return mint() - *this; }
  mint pow(ll n) const {
    assert(0 <= n);
    mint x = *this, r = 1;
    while (n) {
      if (n & 1) r *= x;
      x *= x, n >>= 1;
    }
    return r;
  }
  mint inverse() const {
    int x = val, mod = get_mod();
    int a = x, b = mod, u = 1, v = 0, t;
    while (b > 0) {
      t = a / b;
      swap(a -= t * b, b), swap(u -= t * v, v);
    }
    if (u < 0) u += mod;
    return u;
  }

  friend mint operator+(const mint& lhs, const mint& rhs) {
    return mint(lhs) += rhs;
  }
  friend mint operator-(const mint& lhs, const mint& rhs) {
    return mint(lhs) -= rhs;
  }
  friend mint operator*(const mint& lhs, const mint& rhs) {
    return mint(lhs) *= rhs;
  }
  friend mint operator/(const mint& lhs, const mint& rhs) {
    return mint(lhs) /= rhs;
  }
  friend bool operator==(const mint& lhs, const mint& rhs) {
    return lhs.val == rhs.val;
  }
  friend bool operator!=(const mint& lhs, const mint& rhs) {
    return lhs.val != rhs.val;
  }
  static pair<int, int>& get_ntt() {
    static pair<int, int> p = {-1, -1};
    return p;
  }
  static void set_ntt_info() {
    int mod = get_mod();
    int k = lowbit(mod - 1);
    int r = primitive_root(mod);
    r = mod_pow(r, (mod - 1) >> k, mod);
    get_ntt() = {k, r};
  }
  static pair<int, int> ntt_info() { return get_ntt(); }
  static bool can_ntt() { return ntt_info().fi != -1; }
};

#ifdef FASTIO
template <int id>
void rd(Dynamic_Modint<id>& x) {
  fastio::rd(x.val);
  x.val %= Dynamic_Modint<id>::umod();
}
template <int id>
void wt(Dynamic_Modint<id> x) {
  fastio::wt(x.val);
}
#endif

using dmint = Dynamic_Modint<-1>;
template <int id>
Barrett Dynamic_Modint<id>::bt;
#line 2 "mod/dynamic_modint.hpp"

#line 2 "mod/modint_common.hpp"

struct has_mod_impl {
  template <class T>
  static auto check(T &&x) -> decltype(x.get_mod(), std::true_type{});
  template <class T>
  static auto check(...) -> std::false_type;
};

template <class T>
class has_mod : public decltype(has_mod_impl::check<T>(std::declval<T>())) {};

template <typename mint>
mint inv(int n) {
  static const int mod = mint::get_mod();
  static vector<mint> dat = {0, 1};
  assert(0 <= n);
  if (n >= mod) n %= mod;
  while (len(dat) <= n) {
    int k = len(dat);
    int q = (mod + k - 1) / k;
    dat.eb(dat[k * q - mod] * mint::raw(q));
  }
  return dat[n];
}

template <typename mint>
mint fact(int n) {
  static const int mod = mint::get_mod();
  assert(0 <= n && n < mod);
  static vector<mint> dat = {1, 1};
  while (len(dat) <= n) dat.eb(dat[len(dat) - 1] * mint::raw(len(dat)));
  return dat[n];
}

template <typename mint>
mint fact_inv(int n) {
  static vector<mint> dat = {1, 1};
  if (n < 0) return mint(0);
  while (len(dat) <= n) dat.eb(dat[len(dat) - 1] * inv<mint>(len(dat)));
  return dat[n];
}

template <class mint, class... Ts>
mint fact_invs(Ts... xs) {
  return (mint(1) * ... * fact_inv<mint>(xs));
}

template <typename mint, class Head, class... Tail>
mint multinomial(Head &&head, Tail &&... tail) {
  return fact<mint>(head) * fact_invs<mint>(std::forward<Tail>(tail)...);
}

template <typename mint>
mint C_dense(int n, int k) {
  static vvc<mint> C;
  static int H = 0, W = 0;
  auto calc = [&](int i, int j) -> mint {
    if (i == 0) return (j == 0 ? mint(1) : mint(0));
    return C[i - 1][j] + (j ? C[i - 1][j - 1] : 0);
  };
  if (W <= k) {
    FOR(i, H) {
      C[i].resize(k + 1);
      FOR(j, W, k + 1) { C[i][j] = calc(i, j); }
    }
    W = k + 1;
  }
  if (H <= n) {
    C.resize(n + 1);
    FOR(i, H, n + 1) {
      C[i].resize(W);
      FOR(j, W) { C[i][j] = calc(i, j); }
    }
    H = n + 1;
  }
  return C[n][k];
}

template <typename mint, bool large = false, bool dense = false>
mint C(ll n, ll k) {
  assert(n >= 0);
  if (k < 0 || n < k) return 0;
  if constexpr (dense) return C_dense<mint>(n, k);
  if constexpr (!large) return multinomial<mint>(n, k, n - k);
  k = min(k, n - k);
  mint x(1);
  FOR(i, k) x *= mint(n - i);
  return x * fact_inv<mint>(k);
}

template <typename mint, bool large = false>
mint C_inv(ll n, ll k) {
  assert(n >= 0);
  assert(0 <= k && k <= n);
  if (!large) return fact_inv<mint>(n) * fact<mint>(k) * fact<mint>(n - k);
  return mint(1) / C<mint, 1>(n, k);
}

// [x^d](1-x)^{-n}
template <typename mint, bool large = false, bool dense = false>
mint C_negative(ll n, ll d) {
  assert(n >= 0);
  if (d < 0) return mint(0);
  if (n == 0) { return (d == 0 ? mint(1) : mint(0)); }
  return C<mint, large, dense>(n + d - 1, d);
}
#line 2 "mod/primitive_root.hpp"

#line 2 "nt/factor.hpp"

#line 2 "random/base.hpp"

u64 RNG_64() {
  static uint64_t x_
      = uint64_t(chrono::duration_cast<chrono::nanoseconds>(
                     chrono::high_resolution_clock::now().time_since_epoch())
                     .count())
        * 10150724397891781847ULL;
  x_ ^= x_ << 7;
  return x_ ^= x_ >> 9;
}

u64 RNG(u64 lim) { return RNG_64() % lim; }

ll RNG(ll l, ll r) { return l + RNG_64() % (r - l); }
#line 2 "mod/mongomery_modint.hpp"

// odd mod.
// x の代わりに rx を持つ
template <int id, typename U1, typename U2>
struct Mongomery_modint {
  using mint = Mongomery_modint;
  inline static U1 m, r, n2;
  static constexpr int W = numeric_limits<U1>::digits;

  static void set_mod(U1 mod) {
    assert(mod & 1 && mod <= U1(1) << (W - 2));
    m = mod, n2 = -U2(m) % m, r = m;
    FOR(5) r *= 2 - m * r;
    r = -r;
    assert(r * m == U1(-1));
  }
  static U1 reduce(U2 b) { return (b + U2(U1(b) * r) * m) >> W; }

  U1 x;
  Mongomery_modint() : x(0) {}
  Mongomery_modint(U1 x) : x(reduce(U2(x) * n2)){};
  U1 val() const {
    U1 y = reduce(x);
    return y >= m ? y - m : y;
  }
  mint &operator+=(mint y) {
    x = ((x += y.x) >= m ? x - m : x);
    return *this;
  }
  mint &operator-=(mint y) {
    x -= (x >= y.x ? y.x : y.x - m);
    return *this;
  }
  mint &operator*=(mint y) {
    x = reduce(U2(x) * y.x);
    return *this;
  }
  mint operator+(mint y) const { return mint(*this) += y; }
  mint operator-(mint y) const { return mint(*this) -= y; }
  mint operator*(mint y) const { return mint(*this) *= y; }
  bool operator==(mint y) const {
    return (x >= m ? x - m : x) == (y.x >= m ? y.x - m : y.x);
  }
  bool operator!=(mint y) const { return not operator==(y); }
  mint pow(ll n) const {
    assert(n >= 0);
    mint y = 1, z = *this;
    for (; n; n >>= 1, z *= z)
      if (n & 1) y *= z;
    return y;
  }
};

template <int id>
using Mongomery_modint_32 = Mongomery_modint<id, u32, u64>;
template <int id>
using Mongomery_modint_64 = Mongomery_modint<id, u64, u128>;
#line 3 "nt/primetest.hpp"

bool primetest(const u64 x) {
  assert(x < u64(1) << 62);
  if (x == 2 or x == 3 or x == 5 or x == 7) return true;
  if (x % 2 == 0 or x % 3 == 0 or x % 5 == 0 or x % 7 == 0) return false;
  if (x < 121) return x > 1;
  const u64 d = (x - 1) >> lowbit(x - 1);

  using mint = Mongomery_modint_64<202311020>;

  mint::set_mod(x);
  const mint one(u64(1)), minus_one(x - 1);
  auto ok = [&](u64 a) -> bool {
    auto y = mint(a).pow(d);
    u64 t = d;
    while (y != one && y != minus_one && t != x - 1) y *= y, t <<= 1;
    if (y != minus_one && t % 2 == 0) return false;
    return true;
  };
  if (x < (u64(1) << 32)) {
    for (u64 a: {2, 7, 61})
      if (!ok(a)) return false;
  } else {
    for (u64 a: {2, 325, 9375, 28178, 450775, 9780504, 1795265022}) {
      if (!ok(a)) return false;
    }
  }
  return true;
}
#line 5 "nt/factor.hpp"

template <typename mint>
ll rho(ll n, ll c) {
  assert(n > 1);
  const mint cc(c);
  auto f = [&](mint x) { return x * x + cc; };
  mint x = 1, y = 2, z = 1, q = 1;
  ll g = 1;
  const ll m = 1LL << (__lg(n) / 5);
  for (ll r = 1; g == 1; r <<= 1) {
    x = y;
    FOR(r) y = f(y);
    for (ll k = 0; k < r && g == 1; k += m) {
      z = y;
      FOR(min(m, r - k)) y = f(y), q *= x - y;
      g = gcd(q.val(), n);
    }
  }
  if (g == n) do {
      z = f(z);
      g = gcd((x - z).val(), n);
    } while (g == 1);
  return g;
}

ll find_prime_factor(ll n) {
  assert(n > 1);
  if (primetest(n)) return n;
  FOR(100) {
    ll m = 0;
    if (n < (1 << 30)) {
      using mint = Mongomery_modint_32<20231025>;
      mint::set_mod(n);
      m = rho<mint>(n, RNG(0, n));
    } else {
      using mint = Mongomery_modint_64<20231025>;
      mint::set_mod(n);
      m = rho<mint>(n, RNG(0, n));
    }
    if (primetest(m)) return m;
    n = m;
  }
  assert(0);
  return -1;
}

// ソートしてくれる
vc<pair<ll, int>> factor(ll n) {
  assert(n >= 1);
  vc<pair<ll, int>> pf;
  FOR(p, 2, 100) {
    if (p * p > n) break;
    if (n % p == 0) {
      ll e = 0;
      do { n /= p, e += 1; } while (n % p == 0);
      pf.eb(p, e);
    }
  }
  while (n > 1) {
    ll p = find_prime_factor(n);
    ll e = 0;
    do { n /= p, e += 1; } while (n % p == 0);
    pf.eb(p, e);
  }
  sort(all(pf));
  return pf;
}

vc<pair<ll, int>> factor_by_lpf(ll n, vc<int>& lpf) {
  vc<pair<ll, int>> res;
  while (n > 1) {
    int p = lpf[n];
    int e = 0;
    while (n % p == 0) {
      n /= p;
      ++e;
    }
    res.eb(p, e);
  }
  return res;
}
#line 2 "mod/mod_pow.hpp"

#line 2 "mod/barrett.hpp"

// https://github.com/atcoder/ac-library/blob/master/atcoder/internal_math.hpp
struct Barrett {
  u32 m;
  u64 im;
  explicit Barrett(u32 m = 1) : m(m), im(u64(-1) / m + 1) {}
  u32 umod() const { return m; }
  u32 modulo(u64 z) {
    if (m == 1) return 0;
    u64 x = (u64)(((unsigned __int128)(z)*im) >> 64);
    u64 y = x * m;
    return (z - y + (z < y ? m : 0));
  }
  u64 floor(u64 z) {
    if (m == 1) return z;
    u64 x = (u64)(((unsigned __int128)(z)*im) >> 64);
    u64 y = x * m;
    return (z < y ? x - 1 : x);
  }
  pair<u64, u32> divmod(u64 z) {
    if (m == 1) return {z, 0};
    u64 x = (u64)(((unsigned __int128)(z)*im) >> 64);
    u64 y = x * m;
    if (z < y) return {x - 1, z - y + m};
    return {x, z - y};
  }
  u32 mul(u32 a, u32 b) { return modulo(u64(a) * b); }
};

struct Barrett_64 {
  u128 mod, mh, ml;

  explicit Barrett_64(u64 mod = 1) : mod(mod) {
    u128 m = u128(-1) / mod;
    if (m * mod + mod == u128(0)) ++m;
    mh = m >> 64;
    ml = m & u64(-1);
  }

  u64 umod() const { return mod; }

  u64 modulo(u128 x) {
    u128 z = (x & u64(-1)) * ml;
    z = (x & u64(-1)) * mh + (x >> 64) * ml + (z >> 64);
    z = (x >> 64) * mh + (z >> 64);
    x -= z * mod;
    return x < mod ? x : x - mod;
  }

  u64 mul(u64 a, u64 b) { return modulo(u128(a) * b); }
};
#line 5 "mod/mod_pow.hpp"

u32 mod_pow(int a, ll n, int mod) {
  assert(n >= 0);
  a = ((a %= mod) < 0 ? a + mod : a);
  if ((mod & 1) && (mod < (1 << 30))) {
    using mint = Mongomery_modint_32<202311021>;
    mint::set_mod(mod);
    return mint(a).pow(n).val();
  }
  Barrett bt(mod);
  int r = 1;
  while (n) {
    if (n & 1) r = bt.mul(r, a);
    a = bt.mul(a, a), n >>= 1;
  }
  return r;
}

u64 mod_pow_64(ll a, ll n, u64 mod) {
  assert(n >= 0);
  a = ((a %= mod) < 0 ? a + mod : a);
  if ((mod & 1) && (mod < (u64(1) << 62))) {
    using mint = Mongomery_modint_64<202311021>;
    mint::set_mod(mod);
    return mint(a).pow(n).val();
  }
  Barrett_64 bt(mod);
  ll r = 1;
  while (n) {
    if (n & 1) r = bt.mul(r, a);
    a = bt.mul(a, a), n >>= 1;
  }
  return r;
}
#line 6 "mod/primitive_root.hpp"

// int

int primitive_root(int p) {
  auto pf = factor(p - 1);
  auto is_ok = [&](int g) -> bool {
    for (auto&& [q, e]: pf)
      if (mod_pow(g, (p - 1) / q, p) == 1) return false;
    return true;
  };
  while (1) {
    int x = RNG(1, p);
    if (is_ok(x)) return x;
  }
  return -1;
}

ll primitive_root_64(ll p) {
  auto pf = factor(p - 1);
  auto is_ok = [&](ll g) -> bool {
    for (auto&& [q, e]: pf)
      if (mod_pow_64(g, (p - 1) / q, p) == 1) return false;
    return true;
  };
  while (1) {
    ll x = RNG(1, p);
    if (is_ok(x)) return x;
  }
  return -1;
}
#line 6 "mod/dynamic_modint.hpp"

template <int id>
struct Dynamic_Modint {
  static constexpr bool is_modint = true;
  using mint = Dynamic_Modint;
  u32 val;
  static Barrett bt;
  static u32 umod() { return bt.umod(); }

  static int get_mod() { return (int)(bt.umod()); }
  static void set_mod(int m) {
    assert(1 <= m);
    bt = Barrett(m);
  }

  static Dynamic_Modint raw(u32 v) {
    Dynamic_Modint x;
    x.val = v;
    return x;
  }
  Dynamic_Modint() : val(0) {}
  Dynamic_Modint(u32 x) : val(bt.modulo(x)) {}
  Dynamic_Modint(u64 x) : val(bt.modulo(x)) {}
  Dynamic_Modint(int x) : val((x %= get_mod()) < 0 ? x + get_mod() : x) {}
  Dynamic_Modint(ll x) : val((x %= get_mod()) < 0 ? x + get_mod() : x) {}
  Dynamic_Modint(i128 x) : val((x %= get_mod()) < 0 ? x + get_mod() : x){};

  mint& operator+=(const mint& rhs) {
    val = (val += rhs.val) < umod() ? val : val - umod();
    return *this;
  }
  mint& operator-=(const mint& rhs) {
    val = (val += umod() - rhs.val) < umod() ? val : val - umod();
    return *this;
  }
  mint& operator*=(const mint& rhs) {
    val = bt.mul(val, rhs.val);
    return *this;
  }
  mint& operator/=(const mint& rhs) { return *this = *this * rhs.inverse(); }
  mint operator-() const { return mint() - *this; }
  mint pow(ll n) const {
    assert(0 <= n);
    mint x = *this, r = 1;
    while (n) {
      if (n & 1) r *= x;
      x *= x, n >>= 1;
    }
    return r;
  }
  mint inverse() const {
    int x = val, mod = get_mod();
    int a = x, b = mod, u = 1, v = 0, t;
    while (b > 0) {
      t = a / b;
      swap(a -= t * b, b), swap(u -= t * v, v);
    }
    if (u < 0) u += mod;
    return u;
  }

  friend mint operator+(const mint& lhs, const mint& rhs) {
    return mint(lhs) += rhs;
  }
  friend mint operator-(const mint& lhs, const mint& rhs) {
    return mint(lhs) -= rhs;
  }
  friend mint operator*(const mint& lhs, const mint& rhs) {
    return mint(lhs) *= rhs;
  }
  friend mint operator/(const mint& lhs, const mint& rhs) {
    return mint(lhs) /= rhs;
  }
  friend bool operator==(const mint& lhs, const mint& rhs) {
    return lhs.val == rhs.val;
  }
  friend bool operator!=(const mint& lhs, const mint& rhs) {
    return lhs.val != rhs.val;
  }
  static pair<int, int>& get_ntt() {
    static pair<int, int> p = {-1, -1};
    return p;
  }
  static void set_ntt_info() {
    int mod = get_mod();
    int k = lowbit(mod - 1);
    int r = primitive_root(mod);
    r = mod_pow(r, (mod - 1) >> k, mod);
    get_ntt() = {k, r};
  }
  static pair<int, int> ntt_info() { return get_ntt(); }
  static bool can_ntt() { return ntt_info().fi != -1; }
};

#ifdef FASTIO
template <int id>
void rd(Dynamic_Modint<id>& x) {
  fastio::rd(x.val);
  x.val %= Dynamic_Modint<id>::umod();
}
template <int id>
void wt(Dynamic_Modint<id> x) {
  fastio::wt(x.val);
}
#endif

using dmint = Dynamic_Modint<-1>;
template <int id>
Barrett Dynamic_Modint<id>::bt;
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