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:heavy_check_mark: linalg/matrix_pow.hpp

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Code

#include "linalg/matrix_mul.hpp"


template <typename T>
vc<vc<T>> matrix_pow(vc<vc<T>> A, ll n) {
  int N = len(A);
  vv(T, ret, N, N);
  FOR(i, N) ret[i][i] = T(1);
  while (n) {
    if (n & 1) ret = matrix_mul(ret, A, N, N, N);
    n /= 2;
    if (n) A = matrix_mul(A, A, N, N, N);
  }
  return ret;
}

template <typename T, int N>
array<array<T, N>, N> matrix_pow(array<array<T, N>, N> A, ll n) {
  array<array<T, N>, N> ret{};
  FOR(i, N) ret[i][i] = T(1);
  while (n) {
    if (n & 1) ret = matrix_mul<T, N>(ret, A);
    n /= 2;
    if (n) A = matrix_mul<T, N>(A, A);
  }
  return ret;
}
#line 2 "mod/modint_common.hpp"

struct has_mod_impl {
  template <class T>
  static auto check(T &&x) -> decltype(x.get_mod(), std::true_type{});
  template <class T>
  static auto check(...) -> std::false_type;
};

template <class T>
class has_mod : public decltype(has_mod_impl::check<T>(std::declval<T>())) {};

template <typename mint>
mint inv(int n) {
  static const int mod = mint::get_mod();
  static vector<mint> dat = {0, 1};
  assert(0 <= n);
  if (n >= mod) n %= mod;
  while (len(dat) <= n) {
    int k = len(dat);
    int q = (mod + k - 1) / k;
    dat.eb(dat[k * q - mod] * mint::raw(q));
  }
  return dat[n];
}

template <typename mint>
mint fact(int n) {
  static const int mod = mint::get_mod();
  assert(0 <= n && n < mod);
  static vector<mint> dat = {1, 1};
  while (len(dat) <= n) dat.eb(dat[len(dat) - 1] * mint::raw(len(dat)));
  return dat[n];
}

template <typename mint>
mint fact_inv(int n) {
  static vector<mint> dat = {1, 1};
  if (n < 0) return mint(0);
  while (len(dat) <= n) dat.eb(dat[len(dat) - 1] * inv<mint>(len(dat)));
  return dat[n];
}

template <class mint, class... Ts>
mint fact_invs(Ts... xs) {
  return (mint(1) * ... * fact_inv<mint>(xs));
}

template <typename mint, class Head, class... Tail>
mint multinomial(Head &&head, Tail &&... tail) {
  return fact<mint>(head) * fact_invs<mint>(std::forward<Tail>(tail)...);
}

template <typename mint>
mint C_dense(int n, int k) {
  static vvc<mint> C;
  static int H = 0, W = 0;
  auto calc = [&](int i, int j) -> mint {
    if (i == 0) return (j == 0 ? mint(1) : mint(0));
    return C[i - 1][j] + (j ? C[i - 1][j - 1] : 0);
  };
  if (W <= k) {
    FOR(i, H) {
      C[i].resize(k + 1);
      FOR(j, W, k + 1) { C[i][j] = calc(i, j); }
    }
    W = k + 1;
  }
  if (H <= n) {
    C.resize(n + 1);
    FOR(i, H, n + 1) {
      C[i].resize(W);
      FOR(j, W) { C[i][j] = calc(i, j); }
    }
    H = n + 1;
  }
  return C[n][k];
}

template <typename mint, bool large = false, bool dense = false>
mint C(ll n, ll k) {
  assert(n >= 0);
  if (k < 0 || n < k) return 0;
  if constexpr (dense) return C_dense<mint>(n, k);
  if constexpr (!large) return multinomial<mint>(n, k, n - k);
  k = min(k, n - k);
  mint x(1);
  FOR(i, k) x *= mint(n - i);
  return x * fact_inv<mint>(k);
}

template <typename mint, bool large = false>
mint C_inv(ll n, ll k) {
  assert(n >= 0);
  assert(0 <= k && k <= n);
  if (!large) return fact_inv<mint>(n) * fact<mint>(k) * fact<mint>(n - k);
  return mint(1) / C<mint, 1>(n, k);
}

// [x^d](1-x)^{-n}
template <typename mint, bool large = false, bool dense = false>
mint C_negative(ll n, ll d) {
  assert(n >= 0);
  if (d < 0) return mint(0);
  if (n == 0) { return (d == 0 ? mint(1) : mint(0)); }
  return C<mint, large, dense>(n + d - 1, d);
}
#line 3 "mod/modint.hpp"

template <int mod>
struct modint {
  static constexpr u32 umod = u32(mod);
  static_assert(umod < u32(1) << 31);
  u32 val;

  static modint raw(u32 v) {
    modint x;
    x.val = v;
    return x;
  }
  constexpr modint() : val(0) {}
  constexpr modint(u32 x) : val(x % umod) {}
  constexpr modint(u64 x) : val(x % umod) {}
  constexpr modint(u128 x) : val(x % umod) {}
  constexpr modint(int x) : val((x %= mod) < 0 ? x + mod : x){};
  constexpr modint(ll x) : val((x %= mod) < 0 ? x + mod : x){};
  constexpr modint(i128 x) : val((x %= mod) < 0 ? x + mod : x){};
  bool operator<(const modint &other) const { return val < other.val; }
  modint &operator+=(const modint &p) {
    if ((val += p.val) >= umod) val -= umod;
    return *this;
  }
  modint &operator-=(const modint &p) {
    if ((val += umod - p.val) >= umod) val -= umod;
    return *this;
  }
  modint &operator*=(const modint &p) {
    val = u64(val) * p.val % umod;
    return *this;
  }
  modint &operator/=(const modint &p) {
    *this *= p.inverse();
    return *this;
  }
  modint operator-() const { return modint::raw(val ? mod - val : u32(0)); }
  modint operator+(const modint &p) const { return modint(*this) += p; }
  modint operator-(const modint &p) const { return modint(*this) -= p; }
  modint operator*(const modint &p) const { return modint(*this) *= p; }
  modint operator/(const modint &p) const { return modint(*this) /= p; }
  bool operator==(const modint &p) const { return val == p.val; }
  bool operator!=(const modint &p) const { return val != p.val; }
  modint inverse() const {
    int a = val, b = mod, u = 1, v = 0, t;
    while (b > 0) {
      t = a / b;
      swap(a -= t * b, b), swap(u -= t * v, v);
    }
    return modint(u);
  }
  modint pow(ll n) const {
    assert(n >= 0);
    modint ret(1), mul(val);
    while (n > 0) {
      if (n & 1) ret *= mul;
      mul *= mul;
      n >>= 1;
    }
    return ret;
  }
  static constexpr int get_mod() { return mod; }
  // (n, r), r は 1 の 2^n 乗根
  static constexpr pair<int, int> ntt_info() {
    if (mod == 120586241) return {20, 74066978};
    if (mod == 167772161) return {25, 17};
    if (mod == 469762049) return {26, 30};
    if (mod == 754974721) return {24, 362};
    if (mod == 880803841) return {23, 211};
    if (mod == 943718401) return {22, 663003469};
    if (mod == 998244353) return {23, 31};
    if (mod == 1045430273) return {20, 363};
    if (mod == 1051721729) return {20, 330};
    if (mod == 1053818881) return {20, 2789};
    return {-1, -1};
  }
  static constexpr bool can_ntt() { return ntt_info().fi != -1; }
};

#ifdef FASTIO
template <int mod>
void rd(modint<mod> &x) {
  fastio::rd(x.val);
  x.val %= mod;
  // assert(0 <= x.val && x.val < mod);
}
template <int mod>
void wt(modint<mod> x) {
  fastio::wt(x.val);
}
#endif

using modint107 = modint<1000000007>;
using modint998 = modint<998244353>;
#line 3 "linalg/matrix_mul.hpp"

template <class T, typename enable_if<has_mod<T>::value>::type* = nullptr>
vc<vc<T>> matrix_mul(const vc<vc<T>>& A, const vc<vc<T>>& B, int N1 = -1,
                     int N2 = -1, int N3 = -1) {
  if (N1 == -1) { N1 = len(A), N2 = len(B), N3 = len(B[0]); }
  vv(u32, b, N3, N2);
  FOR(i, N2) FOR(j, N3) b[j][i] = B[i][j].val;
  vv(T, C, N1, N3);

  if ((T::get_mod() < (1 << 30)) && N2 <= 16) {
    FOR(i, N1) FOR(j, N3) {
      u64 sm = 0;
      FOR(m, N2) sm += u64(A[i][m].val) * b[j][m];
      C[i][j] = sm;
    }
  } else {
    FOR(i, N1) FOR(j, N3) {
      u128 sm = 0;
      FOR(m, N2) sm += u64(A[i][m].val) * b[j][m];
      C[i][j] = T::raw(sm % (T::get_mod()));
    }
  }
  return C;
}

template <class T, typename enable_if<!has_mod<T>::value>::type* = nullptr>
vc<vc<T>> matrix_mul(const vc<vc<T>>& A, const vc<vc<T>>& B, int N1 = -1,
                     int N2 = -1, int N3 = -1) {
  if (N1 == -1) { N1 = len(A), N2 = len(B), N3 = len(B[0]); }
  vv(T, b, N2, N3);
  FOR(i, N2) FOR(j, N3) b[j][i] = B[i][j];
  vv(T, C, N1, N3);
  FOR(n, N1) FOR(m, N2) FOR(k, N3) C[n][k] += A[n][m] * b[k][m];
  return C;
}

// square-matrix defined as array

template <class T, int N>
array<array<T, N>, N> matrix_mul(const array<array<T, N>, N>& A,
                                 const array<array<T, N>, N>& B) {
  array<array<T, N>, N> C{};

  if ((T::get_mod() < (1 << 30)) && N <= 16) {
    FOR(i, N) FOR(k, N) {
      u64 sm = 0;
      FOR(j, N) sm += u64(A[i][j].val) * (B[j][k].val);
      C[i][k] = sm;
    }
  } else {
    FOR(i, N) FOR(k, N) {
      u128 sm = 0;
      FOR(j, N) sm += u64(A[i][j].val) * (B[j][k].val);
      C[i][k] = sm;
    }
  }
  return C;
}
#line 2 "linalg/matrix_pow.hpp"

template <typename T>
vc<vc<T>> matrix_pow(vc<vc<T>> A, ll n) {
  int N = len(A);
  vv(T, ret, N, N);
  FOR(i, N) ret[i][i] = T(1);
  while (n) {
    if (n & 1) ret = matrix_mul(ret, A, N, N, N);
    n /= 2;
    if (n) A = matrix_mul(A, A, N, N, N);
  }
  return ret;
}

template <typename T, int N>
array<array<T, N>, N> matrix_pow(array<array<T, N>, N> A, ll n) {
  array<array<T, N>, N> ret{};
  FOR(i, N) ret[i][i] = T(1);
  while (n) {
    if (n & 1) ret = matrix_mul<T, N>(ret, A);
    n /= 2;
    if (n) A = matrix_mul<T, N>(A, A);
  }
  return ret;
}
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