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:heavy_check_mark: graph/chromatic.hpp

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Code

#include "graph/base.hpp"

#include "random/base.hpp"

#include "nt/primetest.hpp"

#include "poly/multipoint.hpp"

#include "setfunc/power_projection_of_sps.hpp"


// O(N2^N)

template <typename Graph, int TRIAL = 0>
int chromatic_number(Graph& G) {
  assert(G.is_prepared());

  int N = G.N;
  vc<int> nbd(N);
  FOR(v, N) for (auto&& e: G[v]) nbd[v] |= 1 << e.to;

  // s の subset であるような独立集合の数え上げ

  vc<int> dp(1 << N);
  dp[0] = 1;
  FOR(v, N) FOR(s, 1 << v) { dp[s | 1 << v] = dp[s] + dp[s & (~nbd[v])]; }

  vi pow(1 << N);
  auto solve_p = [&](int p) -> int {
    FOR(s, 1 << N) pow[s] = ((N - popcnt(s)) & 1 ? 1 : -1);
    FOR(k, 1, N) {
      ll sum = 0;
      FOR(s, 1 << N) {
        pow[s] = pow[s] * dp[s];
        if (p) pow[s] %= p;
        sum += pow[s];
      }
      if (p) sum %= p;
      if (sum != 0) { return k; }
    }
    return N;
  };

  int ANS = 0;
  chmax(ANS, solve_p(0));

  FOR(TRIAL) {
    int p;
    while (1) {
      p = RNG(1LL << 30, 1LL << 31);
      if (primetest(p)) break;
    }
    chmax(ANS, solve_p(p));
  }
  return ANS;
}

// O(N^22^N)

template <typename mint, int MAX_N>
vc<mint> chromatic_polynomial(Graph<int, 0> G) {
  int N = G.N;
  assert(N <= MAX_N);
  vc<int> ng(1 << N);
  for (auto& e: G.edges) {
    int i = e.frm, j = e.to;
    ng[(1 << i) | (1 << j)] = 1;
  }
  FOR(s, 1 << N) {
    if (ng[s]) {
      FOR(i, N) { ng[s | 1 << i] = 1; }
    }
  }
  vc<mint> f(1 << N);
  FOR(s, 1 << N) {
    if (!ng[s]) f[s] = 1;
  }
  vc<mint> wt(1 << N);
  wt.back() = 1;
  vc<mint> Y = power_projection_of_sps<mint, MAX_N>(wt, f, N + 1);
  vc<mint> X(N + 1);
  FOR(i, N + 1) X[i] = i;
  return multipoint_interpolate<mint>(X, Y);
}
#line 2 "graph/base.hpp"

template <typename T>
struct Edge {
  int frm, to;
  T cost;
  int id;
};

template <typename T = int, bool directed = false>
struct Graph {
  static constexpr bool is_directed = directed;
  int N, M;
  using cost_type = T;
  using edge_type = Edge<T>;
  vector<edge_type> edges;
  vector<int> indptr;
  vector<edge_type> csr_edges;
  vc<int> vc_deg, vc_indeg, vc_outdeg;
  bool prepared;

  class OutgoingEdges {
  public:
    OutgoingEdges(const Graph* G, int l, int r) : G(G), l(l), r(r) {}

    const edge_type* begin() const {
      if (l == r) { return 0; }
      return &G->csr_edges[l];
    }

    const edge_type* end() const {
      if (l == r) { return 0; }
      return &G->csr_edges[r];
    }

  private:
    const Graph* G;
    int l, r;
  };

  bool is_prepared() { return prepared; }

  Graph() : N(0), M(0), prepared(0) {}
  Graph(int N) : N(N), M(0), prepared(0) {}

  void build(int n) {
    N = n, M = 0;
    prepared = 0;
    edges.clear();
    indptr.clear();
    csr_edges.clear();
    vc_deg.clear();
    vc_indeg.clear();
    vc_outdeg.clear();
  }

  void add(int frm, int to, T cost = 1, int i = -1) {
    assert(!prepared);
    assert(0 <= frm && 0 <= to && to < N);
    if (i == -1) i = M;
    auto e = edge_type({frm, to, cost, i});
    edges.eb(e);
    ++M;
  }

#ifdef FASTIO
  // wt, off
  void read_tree(bool wt = false, int off = 1) { read_graph(N - 1, wt, off); }

  void read_graph(int M, bool wt = false, int off = 1) {
    for (int m = 0; m < M; ++m) {
      INT(a, b);
      a -= off, b -= off;
      if (!wt) {
        add(a, b);
      } else {
        T c;
        read(c);
        add(a, b, c);
      }
    }
    build();
  }
#endif

  void build() {
    assert(!prepared);
    prepared = true;
    indptr.assign(N + 1, 0);
    for (auto&& e: edges) {
      indptr[e.frm + 1]++;
      if (!directed) indptr[e.to + 1]++;
    }
    for (int v = 0; v < N; ++v) { indptr[v + 1] += indptr[v]; }
    auto counter = indptr;
    csr_edges.resize(indptr.back() + 1);
    for (auto&& e: edges) {
      csr_edges[counter[e.frm]++] = e;
      if (!directed)
        csr_edges[counter[e.to]++] = edge_type({e.to, e.frm, e.cost, e.id});
    }
  }

  OutgoingEdges operator[](int v) const {
    assert(prepared);
    return {this, indptr[v], indptr[v + 1]};
  }

  vc<int> deg_array() {
    if (vc_deg.empty()) calc_deg();
    return vc_deg;
  }

  pair<vc<int>, vc<int>> deg_array_inout() {
    if (vc_indeg.empty()) calc_deg_inout();
    return {vc_indeg, vc_outdeg};
  }

  int deg(int v) {
    if (vc_deg.empty()) calc_deg();
    return vc_deg[v];
  }

  int in_deg(int v) {
    if (vc_indeg.empty()) calc_deg_inout();
    return vc_indeg[v];
  }

  int out_deg(int v) {
    if (vc_outdeg.empty()) calc_deg_inout();
    return vc_outdeg[v];
  }

#ifdef FASTIO
  void debug() {
    print("Graph");
    if (!prepared) {
      print("frm to cost id");
      for (auto&& e: edges) print(e.frm, e.to, e.cost, e.id);
    } else {
      print("indptr", indptr);
      print("frm to cost id");
      FOR(v, N) for (auto&& e: (*this)[v]) print(e.frm, e.to, e.cost, e.id);
    }
  }
#endif

  vc<int> new_idx;
  vc<bool> used_e;

  // G における頂点 V[i] が、新しいグラフで i になるようにする
  // {G, es}
  // sum(deg(v)) の計算量になっていて、
  // 新しいグラフの n+m より大きい可能性があるので注意
  Graph<T, directed> rearrange(vc<int> V, bool keep_eid = 0) {
    if (len(new_idx) != N) new_idx.assign(N, -1);
    int n = len(V);
    FOR(i, n) new_idx[V[i]] = i;
    Graph<T, directed> G(n);
    vc<int> history;
    FOR(i, n) {
      for (auto&& e: (*this)[V[i]]) {
        if (len(used_e) <= e.id) used_e.resize(e.id + 1);
        if (used_e[e.id]) continue;
        int a = e.frm, b = e.to;
        if (new_idx[a] != -1 && new_idx[b] != -1) {
          history.eb(e.id);
          used_e[e.id] = 1;
          int eid = (keep_eid ? e.id : -1);
          G.add(new_idx[a], new_idx[b], e.cost, eid);
        }
      }
    }
    FOR(i, n) new_idx[V[i]] = -1;
    for (auto&& eid: history) used_e[eid] = 0;
    G.build();
    return G;
  }

  Graph<T, true> to_directed_tree(int root = -1) {
    if (root == -1) root = 0;
    assert(!is_directed && prepared && M == N - 1);
    Graph<T, true> G1(N);
    vc<int> par(N, -1);
    auto dfs = [&](auto& dfs, int v) -> void {
      for (auto& e: (*this)[v]) {
        if (e.to == par[v]) continue;
        par[e.to] = v, dfs(dfs, e.to);
      }
    };
    dfs(dfs, root);
    for (auto& e: edges) {
      int a = e.frm, b = e.to;
      if (par[a] == b) swap(a, b);
      assert(par[b] == a);
      G1.add(a, b, e.cost);
    }
    G1.build();
    return G1;
  }

private:
  void calc_deg() {
    assert(vc_deg.empty());
    vc_deg.resize(N);
    for (auto&& e: edges) vc_deg[e.frm]++, vc_deg[e.to]++;
  }

  void calc_deg_inout() {
    assert(vc_indeg.empty());
    vc_indeg.resize(N);
    vc_outdeg.resize(N);
    for (auto&& e: edges) { vc_indeg[e.to]++, vc_outdeg[e.frm]++; }
  }
};
#line 2 "random/base.hpp"

u64 RNG_64() {
  static uint64_t x_
      = uint64_t(chrono::duration_cast<chrono::nanoseconds>(
                     chrono::high_resolution_clock::now().time_since_epoch())
                     .count())
        * 10150724397891781847ULL;
  x_ ^= x_ << 7;
  return x_ ^= x_ >> 9;
}

u64 RNG(u64 lim) { return RNG_64() % lim; }

ll RNG(ll l, ll r) { return l + RNG_64() % (r - l); }
#line 2 "mod/mongomery_modint.hpp"

// odd mod.
// x の代わりに rx を持つ
template <int id, typename U1, typename U2>
struct Mongomery_modint {
  using mint = Mongomery_modint;
  inline static U1 m, r, n2;
  static constexpr int W = numeric_limits<U1>::digits;

  static void set_mod(U1 mod) {
    assert(mod & 1 && mod <= U1(1) << (W - 2));
    m = mod, n2 = -U2(m) % m, r = m;
    FOR(5) r *= 2 - m * r;
    r = -r;
    assert(r * m == U1(-1));
  }
  static U1 reduce(U2 b) { return (b + U2(U1(b) * r) * m) >> W; }

  U1 x;
  Mongomery_modint() : x(0) {}
  Mongomery_modint(U1 x) : x(reduce(U2(x) * n2)){};
  U1 val() const {
    U1 y = reduce(x);
    return y >= m ? y - m : y;
  }
  mint &operator+=(mint y) {
    x = ((x += y.x) >= m ? x - m : x);
    return *this;
  }
  mint &operator-=(mint y) {
    x -= (x >= y.x ? y.x : y.x - m);
    return *this;
  }
  mint &operator*=(mint y) {
    x = reduce(U2(x) * y.x);
    return *this;
  }
  mint operator+(mint y) const { return mint(*this) += y; }
  mint operator-(mint y) const { return mint(*this) -= y; }
  mint operator*(mint y) const { return mint(*this) *= y; }
  bool operator==(mint y) const {
    return (x >= m ? x - m : x) == (y.x >= m ? y.x - m : y.x);
  }
  bool operator!=(mint y) const { return not operator==(y); }
  mint pow(ll n) const {
    assert(n >= 0);
    mint y = 1, z = *this;
    for (; n; n >>= 1, z *= z)
      if (n & 1) y *= z;
    return y;
  }
};

template <int id>
using Mongomery_modint_32 = Mongomery_modint<id, u32, u64>;
template <int id>
using Mongomery_modint_64 = Mongomery_modint<id, u64, u128>;
#line 3 "nt/primetest.hpp"

bool primetest(const u64 x) {
  assert(x < u64(1) << 62);
  if (x == 2 or x == 3 or x == 5 or x == 7) return true;
  if (x % 2 == 0 or x % 3 == 0 or x % 5 == 0 or x % 7 == 0) return false;
  if (x < 121) return x > 1;
  const u64 d = (x - 1) >> lowbit(x - 1);

  using mint = Mongomery_modint_64<202311020>;

  mint::set_mod(x);
  const mint one(u64(1)), minus_one(x - 1);
  auto ok = [&](u64 a) -> bool {
    auto y = mint(a).pow(d);
    u64 t = d;
    while (y != one && y != minus_one && t != x - 1) y *= y, t <<= 1;
    if (y != minus_one && t % 2 == 0) return false;
    return true;
  };
  if (x < (u64(1) << 32)) {
    for (u64 a: {2, 7, 61})
      if (!ok(a)) return false;
  } else {
    for (u64 a: {2, 325, 9375, 28178, 450775, 9780504, 1795265022}) {
      if (!ok(a)) return false;
    }
  }
  return true;
}
#line 2 "poly/multipoint.hpp"

#line 2 "poly/count_terms.hpp"
template<typename mint>
int count_terms(const vc<mint>& f){
  int t = 0;
  FOR(i, len(f)) if(f[i] != mint(0)) ++t;
  return t;
}
#line 2 "mod/modint_common.hpp"

struct has_mod_impl {
  template <class T>
  static auto check(T &&x) -> decltype(x.get_mod(), std::true_type{});
  template <class T>
  static auto check(...) -> std::false_type;
};

template <class T>
class has_mod : public decltype(has_mod_impl::check<T>(std::declval<T>())) {};

template <typename mint>
mint inv(int n) {
  static const int mod = mint::get_mod();
  static vector<mint> dat = {0, 1};
  assert(0 <= n);
  if (n >= mod) n %= mod;
  while (len(dat) <= n) {
    int k = len(dat);
    int q = (mod + k - 1) / k;
    dat.eb(dat[k * q - mod] * mint::raw(q));
  }
  return dat[n];
}

template <typename mint>
mint fact(int n) {
  static const int mod = mint::get_mod();
  assert(0 <= n && n < mod);
  static vector<mint> dat = {1, 1};
  while (len(dat) <= n) dat.eb(dat[len(dat) - 1] * mint::raw(len(dat)));
  return dat[n];
}

template <typename mint>
mint fact_inv(int n) {
  static vector<mint> dat = {1, 1};
  if (n < 0) return mint(0);
  while (len(dat) <= n) dat.eb(dat[len(dat) - 1] * inv<mint>(len(dat)));
  return dat[n];
}

template <class mint, class... Ts>
mint fact_invs(Ts... xs) {
  return (mint(1) * ... * fact_inv<mint>(xs));
}

template <typename mint, class Head, class... Tail>
mint multinomial(Head &&head, Tail &&... tail) {
  return fact<mint>(head) * fact_invs<mint>(std::forward<Tail>(tail)...);
}

template <typename mint>
mint C_dense(int n, int k) {
  static vvc<mint> C;
  static int H = 0, W = 0;
  auto calc = [&](int i, int j) -> mint {
    if (i == 0) return (j == 0 ? mint(1) : mint(0));
    return C[i - 1][j] + (j ? C[i - 1][j - 1] : 0);
  };
  if (W <= k) {
    FOR(i, H) {
      C[i].resize(k + 1);
      FOR(j, W, k + 1) { C[i][j] = calc(i, j); }
    }
    W = k + 1;
  }
  if (H <= n) {
    C.resize(n + 1);
    FOR(i, H, n + 1) {
      C[i].resize(W);
      FOR(j, W) { C[i][j] = calc(i, j); }
    }
    H = n + 1;
  }
  return C[n][k];
}

template <typename mint, bool large = false, bool dense = false>
mint C(ll n, ll k) {
  assert(n >= 0);
  if (k < 0 || n < k) return 0;
  if constexpr (dense) return C_dense<mint>(n, k);
  if constexpr (!large) return multinomial<mint>(n, k, n - k);
  k = min(k, n - k);
  mint x(1);
  FOR(i, k) x *= mint(n - i);
  return x * fact_inv<mint>(k);
}

template <typename mint, bool large = false>
mint C_inv(ll n, ll k) {
  assert(n >= 0);
  assert(0 <= k && k <= n);
  if (!large) return fact_inv<mint>(n) * fact<mint>(k) * fact<mint>(n - k);
  return mint(1) / C<mint, 1>(n, k);
}

// [x^d](1-x)^{-n}
template <typename mint, bool large = false, bool dense = false>
mint C_negative(ll n, ll d) {
  assert(n >= 0);
  if (d < 0) return mint(0);
  if (n == 0) { return (d == 0 ? mint(1) : mint(0)); }
  return C<mint, large, dense>(n + d - 1, d);
}
#line 3 "mod/modint.hpp"

template <int mod>
struct modint {
  static constexpr u32 umod = u32(mod);
  static_assert(umod < u32(1) << 31);
  u32 val;

  static modint raw(u32 v) {
    modint x;
    x.val = v;
    return x;
  }
  constexpr modint() : val(0) {}
  constexpr modint(u32 x) : val(x % umod) {}
  constexpr modint(u64 x) : val(x % umod) {}
  constexpr modint(u128 x) : val(x % umod) {}
  constexpr modint(int x) : val((x %= mod) < 0 ? x + mod : x){};
  constexpr modint(ll x) : val((x %= mod) < 0 ? x + mod : x){};
  constexpr modint(i128 x) : val((x %= mod) < 0 ? x + mod : x){};
  bool operator<(const modint &other) const { return val < other.val; }
  modint &operator+=(const modint &p) {
    if ((val += p.val) >= umod) val -= umod;
    return *this;
  }
  modint &operator-=(const modint &p) {
    if ((val += umod - p.val) >= umod) val -= umod;
    return *this;
  }
  modint &operator*=(const modint &p) {
    val = u64(val) * p.val % umod;
    return *this;
  }
  modint &operator/=(const modint &p) {
    *this *= p.inverse();
    return *this;
  }
  modint operator-() const { return modint::raw(val ? mod - val : u32(0)); }
  modint operator+(const modint &p) const { return modint(*this) += p; }
  modint operator-(const modint &p) const { return modint(*this) -= p; }
  modint operator*(const modint &p) const { return modint(*this) *= p; }
  modint operator/(const modint &p) const { return modint(*this) /= p; }
  bool operator==(const modint &p) const { return val == p.val; }
  bool operator!=(const modint &p) const { return val != p.val; }
  modint inverse() const {
    int a = val, b = mod, u = 1, v = 0, t;
    while (b > 0) {
      t = a / b;
      swap(a -= t * b, b), swap(u -= t * v, v);
    }
    return modint(u);
  }
  modint pow(ll n) const {
    assert(n >= 0);
    modint ret(1), mul(val);
    while (n > 0) {
      if (n & 1) ret *= mul;
      mul *= mul;
      n >>= 1;
    }
    return ret;
  }
  static constexpr int get_mod() { return mod; }
  // (n, r), r は 1 の 2^n 乗根
  static constexpr pair<int, int> ntt_info() {
    if (mod == 120586241) return {20, 74066978};
    if (mod == 167772161) return {25, 17};
    if (mod == 469762049) return {26, 30};
    if (mod == 754974721) return {24, 362};
    if (mod == 880803841) return {23, 211};
    if (mod == 943718401) return {22, 663003469};
    if (mod == 998244353) return {23, 31};
    if (mod == 1045430273) return {20, 363};
    if (mod == 1051721729) return {20, 330};
    if (mod == 1053818881) return {20, 2789};
    return {-1, -1};
  }
  static constexpr bool can_ntt() { return ntt_info().fi != -1; }
};

#ifdef FASTIO
template <int mod>
void rd(modint<mod> &x) {
  fastio::rd(x.val);
  x.val %= mod;
  // assert(0 <= x.val && x.val < mod);
}
template <int mod>
void wt(modint<mod> x) {
  fastio::wt(x.val);
}
#endif

using modint107 = modint<1000000007>;
using modint998 = modint<998244353>;
#line 2 "mod/mod_inv.hpp"

// long でも大丈夫

// (val * x - 1) が mod の倍数になるようにする

// 特に mod=0 なら x=0 が満たす

ll mod_inv(ll val, ll mod) {
  if (mod == 0) return 0;
  mod = abs(mod);
  val %= mod;
  if (val < 0) val += mod;
  ll a = val, b = mod, u = 1, v = 0, t;
  while (b > 0) {
    t = a / b;
    swap(a -= t * b, b), swap(u -= t * v, v);
  }
  if (u < 0) u += mod;
  return u;
}
#line 2 "mod/crt3.hpp"

constexpr u32 mod_pow_constexpr(u64 a, u64 n, u32 mod) {
  a %= mod;
  u64 res = 1;
  FOR(32) {
    if (n & 1) res = res * a % mod;
    a = a * a % mod, n /= 2;
  }
  return res;
}

template <typename T, u32 p0, u32 p1>
T CRT2(u64 a0, u64 a1) {
  static_assert(p0 < p1);
  static constexpr u64 x0_1 = mod_pow_constexpr(p0, p1 - 2, p1);
  u64 c = (a1 - a0 + p1) * x0_1 % p1;
  return a0 + c * p0;
}

template <typename T, u32 p0, u32 p1, u32 p2>
T CRT3(u64 a0, u64 a1, u64 a2) {
  static_assert(p0 < p1 && p1 < p2);
  static constexpr u64 x1 = mod_pow_constexpr(p0, p1 - 2, p1);
  static constexpr u64 x2 = mod_pow_constexpr(u64(p0) * p1 % p2, p2 - 2, p2);
  static constexpr u64 p01 = u64(p0) * p1;
  u64 c = (a1 - a0 + p1) * x1 % p1;
  u64 ans_1 = a0 + c * p0;
  c = (a2 - ans_1 % p2 + p2) * x2 % p2;
  return T(ans_1) + T(c) * T(p01);
}

template <typename T, u32 p0, u32 p1, u32 p2, u32 p3, u32 p4>
T CRT5(u64 a0, u64 a1, u64 a2, u64 a3, u64 a4) {
  static_assert(p0 < p1 && p1 < p2 && p2 < p3 && p3 < p4);
  static constexpr u64 x1 = mod_pow_constexpr(p0, p1 - 2, p1);
  static constexpr u64 x2 = mod_pow_constexpr(u64(p0) * p1 % p2, p2 - 2, p2);
  static constexpr u64 x3
      = mod_pow_constexpr(u64(p0) * p1 % p3 * p2 % p3, p3 - 2, p3);
  static constexpr u64 x4
      = mod_pow_constexpr(u64(p0) * p1 % p4 * p2 % p4 * p3 % p4, p4 - 2, p4);
  static constexpr u64 p01 = u64(p0) * p1;
  static constexpr u64 p23 = u64(p2) * p3;
  u64 c = (a1 - a0 + p1) * x1 % p1;
  u64 ans_1 = a0 + c * p0;
  c = (a2 - ans_1 % p2 + p2) * x2 % p2;
  u128 ans_2 = ans_1 + c * static_cast<u128>(p01);
  c = static_cast<u64>(a3 - ans_2 % p3 + p3) * x3 % p3;
  u128 ans_3 = ans_2 + static_cast<u128>(c * p2) * p01;
  c = static_cast<u64>(a4 - ans_3 % p4 + p4) * x4 % p4;
  return T(ans_3) + T(c) * T(p01) * T(p23);
}
#line 2 "poly/convolution_naive.hpp"

template <class T, typename enable_if<!has_mod<T>::value>::type* = nullptr>
vc<T> convolution_naive(const vc<T>& a, const vc<T>& b) {
  int n = int(a.size()), m = int(b.size());
  if (n > m) return convolution_naive<T>(b, a);
  if (n == 0) return {};
  vector<T> ans(n + m - 1);
  FOR(i, n) FOR(j, m) ans[i + j] += a[i] * b[j];
  return ans;
}

template <class T, typename enable_if<has_mod<T>::value>::type* = nullptr>
vc<T> convolution_naive(const vc<T>& a, const vc<T>& b) {
  int n = int(a.size()), m = int(b.size());
  if (n > m) return convolution_naive<T>(b, a);
  if (n == 0) return {};
  vc<T> ans(n + m - 1);
  if (n <= 16 && (T::get_mod() < (1 << 30))) {
    for (int k = 0; k < n + m - 1; ++k) {
      int s = max(0, k - m + 1);
      int t = min(n, k + 1);
      u64 sm = 0;
      for (int i = s; i < t; ++i) { sm += u64(a[i].val) * (b[k - i].val); }
      ans[k] = sm;
    }
  } else {
    for (int k = 0; k < n + m - 1; ++k) {
      int s = max(0, k - m + 1);
      int t = min(n, k + 1);
      u128 sm = 0;
      for (int i = s; i < t; ++i) { sm += u64(a[i].val) * (b[k - i].val); }
      ans[k] = T::raw(sm % T::get_mod());
    }
  }
  return ans;
}
#line 2 "poly/convolution_karatsuba.hpp"

// 任意の環でできる
template <typename T>
vc<T> convolution_karatsuba(const vc<T>& f, const vc<T>& g) {
  const int thresh = 30;
  if (min(len(f), len(g)) <= thresh) return convolution_naive(f, g);
  int n = max(len(f), len(g));
  int m = ceil(n, 2);
  vc<T> f1, f2, g1, g2;
  if (len(f) < m) f1 = f;
  if (len(f) >= m) f1 = {f.begin(), f.begin() + m};
  if (len(f) >= m) f2 = {f.begin() + m, f.end()};
  if (len(g) < m) g1 = g;
  if (len(g) >= m) g1 = {g.begin(), g.begin() + m};
  if (len(g) >= m) g2 = {g.begin() + m, g.end()};
  vc<T> a = convolution_karatsuba(f1, g1);
  vc<T> b = convolution_karatsuba(f2, g2);
  FOR(i, len(f2)) f1[i] += f2[i];
  FOR(i, len(g2)) g1[i] += g2[i];
  vc<T> c = convolution_karatsuba(f1, g1);
  vc<T> F(len(f) + len(g) - 1);
  assert(2 * m + len(b) <= len(F));
  FOR(i, len(a)) F[i] += a[i], c[i] -= a[i];
  FOR(i, len(b)) F[2 * m + i] += b[i], c[i] -= b[i];
  if (c.back() == T(0)) c.pop_back();
  FOR(i, len(c)) if (c[i] != T(0)) F[m + i] += c[i];
  return F;
}
#line 2 "poly/ntt.hpp"

template <class mint>
void ntt(vector<mint>& a, bool inverse) {
  assert(mint::can_ntt());
  const int rank2 = mint::ntt_info().fi;
  const int mod = mint::get_mod();
  static array<mint, 30> root, iroot;
  static array<mint, 30> rate2, irate2;
  static array<mint, 30> rate3, irate3;

  assert(rank2 != -1 && len(a) <= (1 << max(0, rank2)));

  static bool prepared = 0;
  if (!prepared) {
    prepared = 1;
    root[rank2] = mint::ntt_info().se;
    iroot[rank2] = mint(1) / root[rank2];
    FOR_R(i, rank2) {
      root[i] = root[i + 1] * root[i + 1];
      iroot[i] = iroot[i + 1] * iroot[i + 1];
    }
    mint prod = 1, iprod = 1;
    for (int i = 0; i <= rank2 - 2; i++) {
      rate2[i] = root[i + 2] * prod;
      irate2[i] = iroot[i + 2] * iprod;
      prod *= iroot[i + 2];
      iprod *= root[i + 2];
    }
    prod = 1, iprod = 1;
    for (int i = 0; i <= rank2 - 3; i++) {
      rate3[i] = root[i + 3] * prod;
      irate3[i] = iroot[i + 3] * iprod;
      prod *= iroot[i + 3];
      iprod *= root[i + 3];
    }
  }

  int n = int(a.size());
  int h = topbit(n);
  assert(n == 1 << h);
  if (!inverse) {
    int len = 0;
    while (len < h) {
      if (h - len == 1) {
        int p = 1 << (h - len - 1);
        mint rot = 1;
        FOR(s, 1 << len) {
          int offset = s << (h - len);
          FOR(i, p) {
            auto l = a[i + offset];
            auto r = a[i + offset + p] * rot;
            a[i + offset] = l + r;
            a[i + offset + p] = l - r;
          }
          rot *= rate2[topbit(~s & -~s)];
        }
        len++;
      } else {
        int p = 1 << (h - len - 2);
        mint rot = 1, imag = root[2];
        for (int s = 0; s < (1 << len); s++) {
          mint rot2 = rot * rot;
          mint rot3 = rot2 * rot;
          int offset = s << (h - len);
          for (int i = 0; i < p; i++) {
            u64 mod2 = u64(mod) * mod;
            u64 a0 = a[i + offset].val;
            u64 a1 = u64(a[i + offset + p].val) * rot.val;
            u64 a2 = u64(a[i + offset + 2 * p].val) * rot2.val;
            u64 a3 = u64(a[i + offset + 3 * p].val) * rot3.val;
            u64 a1na3imag = (a1 + mod2 - a3) % mod * imag.val;
            u64 na2 = mod2 - a2;
            a[i + offset] = a0 + a2 + a1 + a3;
            a[i + offset + 1 * p] = a0 + a2 + (2 * mod2 - (a1 + a3));
            a[i + offset + 2 * p] = a0 + na2 + a1na3imag;
            a[i + offset + 3 * p] = a0 + na2 + (mod2 - a1na3imag);
          }
          rot *= rate3[topbit(~s & -~s)];
        }
        len += 2;
      }
    }
  } else {
    mint coef = mint(1) / mint(len(a));
    FOR(i, len(a)) a[i] *= coef;
    int len = h;
    while (len) {
      if (len == 1) {
        int p = 1 << (h - len);
        mint irot = 1;
        FOR(s, 1 << (len - 1)) {
          int offset = s << (h - len + 1);
          FOR(i, p) {
            u64 l = a[i + offset].val;
            u64 r = a[i + offset + p].val;
            a[i + offset] = l + r;
            a[i + offset + p] = (mod + l - r) * irot.val;
          }
          irot *= irate2[topbit(~s & -~s)];
        }
        len--;
      } else {
        int p = 1 << (h - len);
        mint irot = 1, iimag = iroot[2];
        FOR(s, (1 << (len - 2))) {
          mint irot2 = irot * irot;
          mint irot3 = irot2 * irot;
          int offset = s << (h - len + 2);
          for (int i = 0; i < p; i++) {
            u64 a0 = a[i + offset + 0 * p].val;
            u64 a1 = a[i + offset + 1 * p].val;
            u64 a2 = a[i + offset + 2 * p].val;
            u64 a3 = a[i + offset + 3 * p].val;
            u64 x = (mod + a2 - a3) * iimag.val % mod;
            a[i + offset] = a0 + a1 + a2 + a3;
            a[i + offset + 1 * p] = (a0 + mod - a1 + x) * irot.val;
            a[i + offset + 2 * p] = (a0 + a1 + 2 * mod - a2 - a3) * irot2.val;
            a[i + offset + 3 * p] = (a0 + 2 * mod - a1 - x) * irot3.val;
          }
          irot *= irate3[topbit(~s & -~s)];
        }
        len -= 2;
      }
    }
  }
}
#line 1 "poly/fft.hpp"
namespace CFFT {
using real = double;

struct C {
  real x, y;

  C() : x(0), y(0) {}

  C(real x, real y) : x(x), y(y) {}
  inline C operator+(const C& c) const { return C(x + c.x, y + c.y); }
  inline C operator-(const C& c) const { return C(x - c.x, y - c.y); }
  inline C operator*(const C& c) const {
    return C(x * c.x - y * c.y, x * c.y + y * c.x);
  }

  inline C conj() const { return C(x, -y); }
};

const real PI = acosl(-1);
int base = 1;
vector<C> rts = {{0, 0}, {1, 0}};
vector<int> rev = {0, 1};

void ensure_base(int nbase) {
  if (nbase <= base) return;
  rev.resize(1 << nbase);
  rts.resize(1 << nbase);
  for (int i = 0; i < (1 << nbase); i++) {
    rev[i] = (rev[i >> 1] >> 1) + ((i & 1) << (nbase - 1));
  }
  while (base < nbase) {
    real angle = PI * 2.0 / (1 << (base + 1));
    for (int i = 1 << (base - 1); i < (1 << base); i++) {
      rts[i << 1] = rts[i];
      real angle_i = angle * (2 * i + 1 - (1 << base));
      rts[(i << 1) + 1] = C(cos(angle_i), sin(angle_i));
    }
    ++base;
  }
}

void fft(vector<C>& a, int n) {
  assert((n & (n - 1)) == 0);
  int zeros = __builtin_ctz(n);
  ensure_base(zeros);
  int shift = base - zeros;
  for (int i = 0; i < n; i++) {
    if (i < (rev[i] >> shift)) { swap(a[i], a[rev[i] >> shift]); }
  }
  for (int k = 1; k < n; k <<= 1) {
    for (int i = 0; i < n; i += 2 * k) {
      for (int j = 0; j < k; j++) {
        C z = a[i + j + k] * rts[j + k];
        a[i + j + k] = a[i + j] - z;
        a[i + j] = a[i + j] + z;
      }
    }
  }
}
} // namespace CFFT
#line 9 "poly/convolution.hpp"

template <class mint>
vector<mint> convolution_ntt(vector<mint> a, vector<mint> b) {
  if (a.empty() || b.empty()) return {};
  int n = int(a.size()), m = int(b.size());
  int sz = 1;
  while (sz < n + m - 1) sz *= 2;

  // sz = 2^k のときの高速化。分割統治的なやつで損しまくるので。

  if ((n + m - 3) <= sz / 2) {
    auto a_last = a.back(), b_last = b.back();
    a.pop_back(), b.pop_back();
    auto c = convolution(a, b);
    c.resize(n + m - 1);
    c[n + m - 2] = a_last * b_last;
    FOR(i, len(a)) c[i + len(b)] += a[i] * b_last;
    FOR(i, len(b)) c[i + len(a)] += b[i] * a_last;
    return c;
  }

  a.resize(sz), b.resize(sz);
  bool same = a == b;
  ntt(a, 0);
  if (same) {
    b = a;
  } else {
    ntt(b, 0);
  }
  FOR(i, sz) a[i] *= b[i];
  ntt(a, 1);
  a.resize(n + m - 1);
  return a;
}

template <typename mint>
vector<mint> convolution_garner(const vector<mint>& a, const vector<mint>& b) {
  int n = len(a), m = len(b);
  if (!n || !m) return {};
  static constexpr int p0 = 167772161;
  static constexpr int p1 = 469762049;
  static constexpr int p2 = 754974721;
  using mint0 = modint<p0>;
  using mint1 = modint<p1>;
  using mint2 = modint<p2>;
  vc<mint0> a0(n), b0(m);
  vc<mint1> a1(n), b1(m);
  vc<mint2> a2(n), b2(m);
  FOR(i, n) a0[i] = a[i].val, a1[i] = a[i].val, a2[i] = a[i].val;
  FOR(i, m) b0[i] = b[i].val, b1[i] = b[i].val, b2[i] = b[i].val;
  auto c0 = convolution_ntt<mint0>(a0, b0);
  auto c1 = convolution_ntt<mint1>(a1, b1);
  auto c2 = convolution_ntt<mint2>(a2, b2);
  vc<mint> c(len(c0));
  FOR(i, n + m - 1) {
    c[i] = CRT3<mint, p0, p1, p2>(c0[i].val, c1[i].val, c2[i].val);
  }
  return c;
}

template <typename R>
vc<double> convolution_fft(const vc<R>& a, const vc<R>& b) {
  using C = CFFT::C;
  int need = (int)a.size() + (int)b.size() - 1;
  int nbase = 1;
  while ((1 << nbase) < need) nbase++;
  CFFT::ensure_base(nbase);
  int sz = 1 << nbase;
  vector<C> fa(sz);
  for (int i = 0; i < sz; i++) {
    double x = (i < (int)a.size() ? a[i] : 0);
    double y = (i < (int)b.size() ? b[i] : 0);
    fa[i] = C(x, y);
  }
  CFFT::fft(fa, sz);
  C r(0, -0.25 / (sz >> 1)), s(0, 1), t(0.5, 0);
  for (int i = 0; i <= (sz >> 1); i++) {
    int j = (sz - i) & (sz - 1);
    C z = (fa[j] * fa[j] - (fa[i] * fa[i]).conj()) * r;
    fa[j] = (fa[i] * fa[i] - (fa[j] * fa[j]).conj()) * r;
    fa[i] = z;
  }
  for (int i = 0; i < (sz >> 1); i++) {
    C A0 = (fa[i] + fa[i + (sz >> 1)]) * t;
    C A1 = (fa[i] - fa[i + (sz >> 1)]) * t * CFFT::rts[(sz >> 1) + i];
    fa[i] = A0 + A1 * s;
  }
  CFFT::fft(fa, sz >> 1);
  vector<double> ret(need);
  for (int i = 0; i < need; i++) {
    ret[i] = (i & 1 ? fa[i >> 1].y : fa[i >> 1].x);
  }
  return ret;
}

vector<ll> convolution(const vector<ll>& a, const vector<ll>& b) {
  int n = len(a), m = len(b);
  if (!n || !m) return {};
  if (min(n, m) <= 2500) return convolution_naive(a, b);
  ll abs_sum_a = 0, abs_sum_b = 0;
  ll LIM = 1e15;
  FOR(i, n) abs_sum_a = min(LIM, abs_sum_a + abs(a[i]));
  FOR(i, m) abs_sum_b = min(LIM, abs_sum_b + abs(b[i]));
  if (i128(abs_sum_a) * abs_sum_b < 1e15) {
    vc<double> c = convolution_fft<ll>(a, b);
    vc<ll> res(len(c));
    FOR(i, len(c)) res[i] = ll(floor(c[i] + .5));
    return res;
  }

  static constexpr unsigned long long MOD1 = 754974721; // 2^24

  static constexpr unsigned long long MOD2 = 167772161; // 2^25

  static constexpr unsigned long long MOD3 = 469762049; // 2^26

  static constexpr unsigned long long M2M3 = MOD2 * MOD3;
  static constexpr unsigned long long M1M3 = MOD1 * MOD3;
  static constexpr unsigned long long M1M2 = MOD1 * MOD2;
  static constexpr unsigned long long M1M2M3 = MOD1 * MOD2 * MOD3;

  static const unsigned long long i1 = mod_inv(MOD2 * MOD3, MOD1);
  static const unsigned long long i2 = mod_inv(MOD1 * MOD3, MOD2);
  static const unsigned long long i3 = mod_inv(MOD1 * MOD2, MOD3);

  using mint1 = modint<MOD1>;
  using mint2 = modint<MOD2>;
  using mint3 = modint<MOD3>;

  vc<mint1> a1(n), b1(m);
  vc<mint2> a2(n), b2(m);
  vc<mint3> a3(n), b3(m);
  FOR(i, n) a1[i] = a[i], a2[i] = a[i], a3[i] = a[i];
  FOR(i, m) b1[i] = b[i], b2[i] = b[i], b3[i] = b[i];

  auto c1 = convolution_ntt<mint1>(a1, b1);
  auto c2 = convolution_ntt<mint2>(a2, b2);
  auto c3 = convolution_ntt<mint3>(a3, b3);

  vc<ll> c(n + m - 1);
  FOR(i, n + m - 1) {
    u64 x = 0;
    x += (c1[i].val * i1) % MOD1 * M2M3;
    x += (c2[i].val * i2) % MOD2 * M1M3;
    x += (c3[i].val * i3) % MOD3 * M1M2;
    ll diff = c1[i].val - ((long long)(x) % (long long)(MOD1));
    if (diff < 0) diff += MOD1;
    static constexpr unsigned long long offset[5]
        = {0, 0, M1M2M3, 2 * M1M2M3, 3 * M1M2M3};
    x -= offset[diff % 5];
    c[i] = x;
  }
  return c;
}

template <typename mint>
vc<mint> convolution(const vc<mint>& a, const vc<mint>& b) {
  int n = len(a), m = len(b);
  if (!n || !m) return {};
  if (mint::can_ntt()) {
    if (min(n, m) <= 50) return convolution_karatsuba<mint>(a, b);
    return convolution_ntt(a, b);
  }
  if (min(n, m) <= 200) return convolution_karatsuba<mint>(a, b);
  return convolution_garner(a, b);
}
#line 4 "poly/fps_inv.hpp"

template <typename mint>
vc<mint> fps_inv_sparse(const vc<mint>& f) {
  int N = len(f);
  vc<pair<int, mint>> dat;
  FOR(i, 1, N) if (f[i] != mint(0)) dat.eb(i, f[i]);
  vc<mint> g(N);
  mint g0 = mint(1) / f[0];
  g[0] = g0;
  FOR(n, 1, N) {
    mint rhs = 0;
    for (auto&& [k, fk]: dat) {
      if (k > n) break;
      rhs -= fk * g[n - k];
    }
    g[n] = rhs * g0;
  }
  return g;
}

template <typename mint>
vc<mint> fps_inv_dense_ntt(const vc<mint>& F) {
  vc<mint> G = {mint(1) / F[0]};
  ll N = len(F), n = 1;
  G.reserve(N);
  while (n < N) {
    vc<mint> f(2 * n), g(2 * n);
    FOR(i, min(N, 2 * n)) f[i] = F[i];
    FOR(i, n) g[i] = G[i];
    ntt(f, false), ntt(g, false);
    FOR(i, 2 * n) f[i] *= g[i];
    ntt(f, true);
    FOR(i, n) f[i] = 0;
    ntt(f, false);
    FOR(i, 2 * n) f[i] *= g[i];
    ntt(f, true);
    FOR(i, n, min(N, 2 * n)) G.eb(-f[i]);
    n *= 2;
  }
  return G;
}

template <typename mint>
vc<mint> fps_inv_dense(const vc<mint>& F) {
  if (mint::can_ntt()) return fps_inv_dense_ntt(F);
  const int N = len(F);
  vc<mint> R = {mint(1) / F[0]};
  vc<mint> p;
  int m = 1;
  while (m < N) {
    p = convolution(R, R);
    p.resize(m + m);
    vc<mint> f = {F.begin(), F.begin() + min(m + m, N)};
    p = convolution(p, f);
    R.resize(m + m);
    FOR(i, m + m) R[i] = R[i] + R[i] - p[i];
    m += m;
  }
  R.resize(N);
  return R;
}

template <typename mint>
vc<mint> fps_inv(const vc<mint>& f) {
  assert(f[0] != mint(0));
  int n = count_terms(f);
  int t = (mint::can_ntt() ? 160 : 820);
  return (n <= t ? fps_inv_sparse<mint>(f) : fps_inv_dense<mint>(f));
}
#line 2 "poly/middle_product.hpp"

#line 5 "poly/middle_product.hpp"

// n, m 次多項式 (n>=m) a, b → n-m 次多項式 c
// c[i] = sum_j b[j]a[i+j]
template <typename mint>
vc<mint> middle_product(vc<mint>& a, vc<mint>& b) {
  assert(len(a) >= len(b));
  if (b.empty()) return vc<mint>(len(a) - len(b) + 1);
  if (min(len(b), len(a) - len(b) + 1) <= 60) {
    return middle_product_naive(a, b);
  }
  if (!(mint::can_ntt())) {
    return middle_product_garner(a, b);
  } else {
    int n = 1 << __lg(2 * len(a) - 1);
    vc<mint> fa(n), fb(n);
    copy(a.begin(), a.end(), fa.begin());
    copy(b.rbegin(), b.rend(), fb.begin());
    ntt(fa, 0), ntt(fb, 0);
    FOR(i, n) fa[i] *= fb[i];
    ntt(fa, 1);
    fa.resize(len(a));
    fa.erase(fa.begin(), fa.begin() + len(b) - 1);
    return fa;
  }
}

template <typename mint>
vc<mint> middle_product_garner(vc<mint>& a, vc<mint> b) {
  int n = len(a), m = len(b);
  if (!n || !m) return {};
  static constexpr int p0 = 167772161;
  static constexpr int p1 = 469762049;
  static constexpr int p2 = 754974721;
  using mint0 = modint<p0>;
  using mint1 = modint<p1>;
  using mint2 = modint<p2>;
  vc<mint0> a0(n), b0(m);
  vc<mint1> a1(n), b1(m);
  vc<mint2> a2(n), b2(m);
  FOR(i, n) a0[i] = a[i].val, a1[i] = a[i].val, a2[i] = a[i].val;
  FOR(i, m) b0[i] = b[i].val, b1[i] = b[i].val, b2[i] = b[i].val;
  auto c0 = middle_product<mint0>(a0, b0);
  auto c1 = middle_product<mint1>(a1, b1);
  auto c2 = middle_product<mint2>(a2, b2);
  vc<mint> c(len(c0));
  FOR(i, n - m + 1) {
    c[i] = CRT3<mint, p0, p1, p2>(c0[i].val, c1[i].val, c2[i].val);
  }
  return c;
}

template <typename mint>
vc<mint> middle_product_naive(vc<mint>& a, vc<mint>& b) {
  vc<mint> res(len(a) - len(b) + 1);
  FOR(i, len(res)) FOR(j, len(b)) res[i] += b[j] * a[i + j];
  return res;
}
#line 2 "mod/all_inverse.hpp"
template <typename mint>
vc<mint> all_inverse(vc<mint>& X) {
  for (auto&& x: X) assert(x != mint(0));
  int N = len(X);
  vc<mint> res(N + 1);
  res[0] = mint(1);
  FOR(i, N) res[i + 1] = res[i] * X[i];
  mint t = res.back().inverse();
  res.pop_back();
  FOR_R(i, N) {
    res[i] *= t;
    t *= X[i];
  }
  return res;
}
#line 6 "poly/multipoint.hpp"

template <typename mint>
struct SubproductTree {
  int m;
  int sz;
  vc<vc<mint>> T;
  SubproductTree(const vc<mint>& x) {
    m = len(x);
    sz = 1;
    while (sz < m) sz *= 2;
    T.resize(2 * sz);
    FOR(i, sz) T[sz + i] = {1, (i < m ? -x[i] : 0)};
    FOR3_R(i, 1, sz) T[i] = convolution(T[2 * i], T[2 * i + 1]);
  }

  vc<mint> evaluation(vc<mint> f) {
    int n = len(f);
    if (n == 0) return vc<mint>(m, mint(0));
    f.resize(2 * n - 1);
    vc<vc<mint>> g(2 * sz);
    g[1] = T[1];
    g[1].resize(n);
    g[1] = fps_inv(g[1]);
    g[1] = middle_product(f, g[1]);
    g[1].resize(sz);

    FOR3(i, 1, sz) {
      g[2 * i] = middle_product(g[i], T[2 * i + 1]);
      g[2 * i + 1] = middle_product(g[i], T[2 * i]);
    }
    vc<mint> vals(m);
    FOR(i, m) vals[i] = g[sz + i][0];
    return vals;
  }

  vc<mint> interpolation(vc<mint>& y) {
    assert(len(y) == m);
    vc<mint> a(m);
    FOR(i, m) a[i] = T[1][m - i - 1] * (i + 1);

    a = evaluation(a);
    vc<vc<mint>> t(2 * sz);
    FOR(i, sz) t[sz + i] = {(i < m ? y[i] / a[i] : 0)};
    FOR3_R(i, 1, sz) {
      t[i] = convolution(t[2 * i], T[2 * i + 1]);
      auto tt = convolution(t[2 * i + 1], T[2 * i]);
      FOR(k, len(t[i])) t[i][k] += tt[k];
    }
    t[1].resize(m);
    reverse(all(t[1]));
    return t[1];
  }
};

template <typename mint>
vc<mint> multipoint_eval(vc<mint>& f, vc<mint>& x) {
  if (x.empty()) return {};
  SubproductTree<mint> F(x);
  return F.evaluation(f);
}

template <typename mint>
vc<mint> multipoint_interpolate(vc<mint>& x, vc<mint>& y) {
  if (x.empty()) return {};
  SubproductTree<mint> F(x);
  return F.interpolation(y);
}

// calculate f(ar^k) for 0 <= k < m

template <typename mint>
vc<mint> multipoint_eval_on_geom_seq(vc<mint> f, mint a, mint r, int m) {
  const int n = len(f);
  if (m == 0) return {};

  auto eval = [&](mint x) -> mint {
    mint fx = 0;
    mint pow = 1;
    FOR(i, n) fx += f[i] * pow, pow *= x;
    return fx;
  };

  if (r == mint(0)) {
    vc<mint> res(m);
    FOR(i, 1, m) res[i] = f[0];
    res[0] = eval(a);
    return res;
  }
  if (n < 60 || m < 60) {
    vc<mint> res(m);
    FOR(i, m) res[i] = eval(a), a *= r;
    return res;
  }
  assert(r != mint(0));
  // a == 1 に帰着

  mint pow_a = 1;
  FOR(i, n) f[i] *= pow_a, pow_a *= a;

  auto calc = [&](mint r, int m) -> vc<mint> {
    // r^{t_i} の計算

    vc<mint> res(m);
    mint pow = 1;
    res[0] = 1;
    FOR(i, m - 1) {
      res[i + 1] = res[i] * pow;
      pow *= r;
    }
    return res;
  };

  vc<mint> A = calc(r, n + m - 1), B = calc(r.inverse(), max(n, m));
  FOR(i, n) f[i] *= B[i];
  f = middle_product(A, f);
  FOR(i, m) f[i] *= B[i];
  return f;
}

// Y[i] = f(ar^i)

template <typename mint>
vc<mint> multipoint_interpolate_on_geom_seq(vc<mint> Y, mint a, mint r) {
  const int n = len(Y);
  if (n == 0) return {};
  if (n == 1) return {Y[0]};
  assert(r != mint(0));
  mint ir = r.inverse();

  vc<mint> POW(n + n - 1), tPOW(n + n - 1);
  POW[0] = tPOW[0] = mint(1);
  FOR(i, n + n - 2) POW[i + 1] = POW[i] * r, tPOW[i + 1] = tPOW[i] * POW[i];

  vc<mint> iPOW(n + n - 1), itPOW(n + n - 1);
  iPOW[0] = itPOW[0] = mint(1);
  FOR(i, n) iPOW[i + 1] = iPOW[i] * ir, itPOW[i + 1] = itPOW[i] * iPOW[i];

  // prod_[1,i] 1-r^k

  vc<mint> S(n);
  S[0] = mint(1);
  FOR(i, 1, n) S[i] = S[i - 1] * (mint(1) - POW[i]);
  vc<mint> iS = all_inverse<mint>(S);
  mint sn = S[n - 1] * (mint(1) - POW[n]);

  FOR(i, n) {
    Y[i] = Y[i] * tPOW[n - 1 - i] * itPOW[n - 1] * iS[i] * iS[n - 1 - i];
    if (i % 2 == 1) Y[i] = -Y[i];
  }

  // sum_i Y[i] / 1-r^ix

  FOR(i, n) Y[i] *= itPOW[i];
  vc<mint> f = middle_product(tPOW, Y);
  FOR(i, n) f[i] *= itPOW[i];

  // prod 1-r^ix

  vc<mint> g(n);
  g[0] = mint(1);
  FOR(i, 1, n) {
    g[i] = tPOW[i] * sn * iS[i] * iS[n - i];
    if (i % 2 == 1) g[i] = -g[i];
  }
  f = convolution<mint>(f, g);
  f.resize(n);

  reverse(all(f));
  mint ia = a.inverse();
  mint pow = 1;
  FOR(i, n) f[i] *= pow, pow *= ia;
  return f;
}
#line 2 "setfunc/subset_convolution.hpp"

#line 2 "setfunc/ranked_zeta.hpp"

template <typename T, int LIM>
vc<array<T, LIM + 1>> ranked_zeta(const vc<T>& f) {
  int n = topbit(len(f));
  assert(n <= LIM);
  assert(len(f) == 1 << n);
  vc<array<T, LIM + 1>> Rf(1 << n);
  for (int s = 0; s < (1 << n); ++s) Rf[s][popcnt(s)] = f[s];
  for (int i = 0; i < n; ++i) {
    int w = 1 << i;
    for (int p = 0; p < (1 << n); p += 2 * w) {
      for (int s = p; s < p + w; ++s) {
        int t = s | 1 << i;
        for (int d = 0; d <= n; ++d) Rf[t][d] += Rf[s][d];
      }
    }
  }
  return Rf;
}

template <typename T, int LIM>
vc<T> ranked_mobius(vc<array<T, LIM + 1>>& Rf) {
  int n = topbit(len(Rf));
  assert(len(Rf) == 1 << n);
  for (int i = 0; i < n; ++i) {
    int w = 1 << i;
    for (int p = 0; p < (1 << n); p += 2 * w) {
      for (int s = p; s < p + w; ++s) {
        int t = s | 1 << i;
        for (int d = 0; d <= n; ++d) Rf[t][d] -= Rf[s][d];
      }
    }
  }
  vc<T> f(1 << n);
  for (int s = 0; s < (1 << n); ++s) f[s] = Rf[s][popcnt(s)];
  return f;
}
#line 4 "setfunc/subset_convolution.hpp"

template <typename T, int LIM = 20>
vc<T> subset_convolution_square(const vc<T>& A) {
  auto RA = ranked_zeta<T, LIM>(A);
  int n = topbit(len(RA));
  FOR(s, len(RA)) {
    auto& f = RA[s];
    FOR_R(d, n + 1) {
      T x = 0;
      FOR(i, d + 1) x += f[i] * f[d - i];
      f[d] = x;
    }
  }
  return ranked_mobius<T, LIM>(RA);
}

template <typename T, int LIM = 20>
vc<T> subset_convolution(const vc<T>& A, const vc<T>& B) {
  if (A == B) return subset_convolution_square(A);
  auto RA = ranked_zeta<T, LIM>(A);
  auto RB = ranked_zeta<T, LIM>(B);
  int n = topbit(len(RA));
  FOR(s, len(RA)) {
    auto &f = RA[s], &g = RB[s];
    FOR_R(d, n + 1) {
      T x = 0;
      FOR(i, d + 1) x += f[i] * g[d - i];
      f[d] = x;
    }
  }
  return ranked_mobius<T, LIM>(RA);
}
#line 3 "setfunc/power_projection_of_sps.hpp"

// for fixed sps s, consider linear map F:a->b = subset-conv(a,s)
// given x, calculate transpose(F)(x)
template <typename mint, int LIM>
vc<mint> transposed_subset_convolution(vc<mint> s, vc<mint> x) {
  /*
  sum_{j}x_jb_j = sum_{i subset j}x_ja_is_{j-i} = sum_{i}y_ia_i.
  y_i = sum_{j supset i}x_js_{j-i}
  (rev y)_i = sum_{j subset i}(rev x)_js_{i-j}
  y = rev(conv(rev x), s)
  */
  reverse(all(x));
  x = subset_convolution<mint, LIM>(x, s);
  reverse(all(x));
  return x;
}

// assume s[0]==0
// calculate sum_i wt_i(s^k/k!)_i for k=0,1,...,N
template <typename mint, int LIM>
vc<mint> power_projection_of_sps_egf(vc<mint> wt, vc<mint>& s) {
  const int N = topbit(len(s));
  assert(len(s) == (1 << N) && len(wt) == (1 << N) && s[0] == mint(0));
  vc<mint> y(N + 1);
  y[0] = wt[0];
  auto& dp = wt;
  FOR(i, N) {
    vc<mint> newdp(1 << (N - 1 - i));
    FOR(j, N - i) {
      vc<mint> a = {s.begin() + (1 << j), s.begin() + (2 << j)};
      vc<mint> b = {dp.begin() + (1 << j), dp.begin() + (2 << j)};
      b = transposed_subset_convolution<mint, LIM>(a, b);
      FOR(k, len(b)) newdp[k] += b[k];
    }
    swap(dp, newdp);
    y[1 + i] = dp[0];
  }
  return y;
}

// calculate sum_i x_i(s^k)_i for k=0,1,...,M-1
template <typename mint, int LIM>
vc<mint> power_projection_of_sps(vc<mint> wt, vc<mint> s, int M) {
  const int N = topbit(len(s));
  assert(len(s) == (1 << N) && len(wt) == (1 << N));
  mint c = s[0];
  s[0] -= c;
  vc<mint> x = power_projection_of_sps_egf<mint, LIM>(wt, s);
  vc<mint> g(M);
  mint pow = 1;
  FOR(i, M) { g[i] = pow * fact_inv<mint>(i), pow *= c; }
  x = convolution<mint>(x, g);
  x.resize(M);
  FOR(i, M) x[i] *= fact<mint>(i);
  return x;
}
#line 6 "graph/chromatic.hpp"

// O(N2^N)

template <typename Graph, int TRIAL = 0>
int chromatic_number(Graph& G) {
  assert(G.is_prepared());

  int N = G.N;
  vc<int> nbd(N);
  FOR(v, N) for (auto&& e: G[v]) nbd[v] |= 1 << e.to;

  // s の subset であるような独立集合の数え上げ

  vc<int> dp(1 << N);
  dp[0] = 1;
  FOR(v, N) FOR(s, 1 << v) { dp[s | 1 << v] = dp[s] + dp[s & (~nbd[v])]; }

  vi pow(1 << N);
  auto solve_p = [&](int p) -> int {
    FOR(s, 1 << N) pow[s] = ((N - popcnt(s)) & 1 ? 1 : -1);
    FOR(k, 1, N) {
      ll sum = 0;
      FOR(s, 1 << N) {
        pow[s] = pow[s] * dp[s];
        if (p) pow[s] %= p;
        sum += pow[s];
      }
      if (p) sum %= p;
      if (sum != 0) { return k; }
    }
    return N;
  };

  int ANS = 0;
  chmax(ANS, solve_p(0));

  FOR(TRIAL) {
    int p;
    while (1) {
      p = RNG(1LL << 30, 1LL << 31);
      if (primetest(p)) break;
    }
    chmax(ANS, solve_p(p));
  }
  return ANS;
}

// O(N^22^N)

template <typename mint, int MAX_N>
vc<mint> chromatic_polynomial(Graph<int, 0> G) {
  int N = G.N;
  assert(N <= MAX_N);
  vc<int> ng(1 << N);
  for (auto& e: G.edges) {
    int i = e.frm, j = e.to;
    ng[(1 << i) | (1 << j)] = 1;
  }
  FOR(s, 1 << N) {
    if (ng[s]) {
      FOR(i, N) { ng[s | 1 << i] = 1; }
    }
  }
  vc<mint> f(1 << N);
  FOR(s, 1 << N) {
    if (!ng[s]) f[s] = 1;
  }
  vc<mint> wt(1 << N);
  wt.back() = 1;
  vc<mint> Y = power_projection_of_sps<mint, MAX_N>(wt, f, N + 1);
  vc<mint> X(N + 1);
  FOR(i, N + 1) X[i] = i;
  return multipoint_interpolate<mint>(X, Y);
}
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