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:question: ds/wavelet_matrix/wavelet_matrix.hpp

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#include "ds/bit_vector.hpp"

#include "ds/index_compression.hpp"

#include "alg/monoid/add.hpp"


// 静的メソッドinverseの存在をチェックするテンプレート

template <typename, typename = std::void_t<>>
struct has_inverse : std::false_type {};

template <typename T>
struct has_inverse<T, std::void_t<decltype(
                          T::inverse(std::declval<typename T::value_type>()))>>
    : std::true_type {};

struct Dummy_Data_Structure {
  using MX = Monoid_Add<bool>;
  void build(const vc<bool>& A) {}
};

template <typename Y, bool SMALL_Y, typename SEGTREE = Dummy_Data_Structure>
struct Wavelet_Matrix {
  using Mono = typename SEGTREE::MX;
  using T = typename Mono::value_type;
  static_assert(Mono::commute);

  int n, log, K;
  Index_Compression<Y, true, SMALL_Y> IDX;
  vc<Y> ItoY;
  vc<int> mid;
  vc<Bit_Vector> bv;
  vc<SEGTREE> seg;

  Wavelet_Matrix() {}
  Wavelet_Matrix(const vc<Y>& A) { build(A); }
  Wavelet_Matrix(const vc<Y>& A, vc<T>& SUM_Data) { build(A, SUM_Data); }
  template <typename F>
  Wavelet_Matrix(int n, F f) {
    build(n, f);
  }

  template <typename F>
  void build(int m, F f) {
    vc<Y> A(m);
    vc<T> S(m);
    for (int i = 0; i < m; ++i) tie(A[i], S[i]) = f(i);
    build(A, S);
  }

  void build(const vc<Y>& A) { build(A, vc<T>(len(A), Mono::unit())); }
  void build(const vc<Y>& A, vc<T> S) {
    n = len(A);
    vc<int> B = IDX.build(A);
    K = 0;
    for (auto& x: B) chmax(K, x + 1);
    ItoY.resize(K);
    FOR(i, n) ItoY[B[i]] = A[i];
    log = 0;
    while ((1 << log) < K) ++log;
    mid.resize(log), bv.assign(log, Bit_Vector(n));
    vc<int> B0(n), B1(n);
    vc<T> S0(n), S1(n);
    seg.resize(log + 1);
    seg[log].build(S);
    for (int d = log - 1; d >= 0; --d) {
      int p0 = 0, p1 = 0;
      for (int i = 0; i < n; ++i) {
        bool f = (B[i] >> d & 1);
        if (!f) { B0[p0] = B[i], S0[p0] = S[i], p0++; }
        if (f) { bv[d].set(i), B1[p1] = B[i], S1[p1] = S[i], p1++; }
      }
      swap(B, B0), swap(S, S0);
      move(B1.begin(), B1.begin() + p1, B.begin() + p0);
      move(S1.begin(), S1.begin() + p1, S.begin() + p0);
      mid[d] = p0, bv[d].build(), seg[d].build(S);
    }
  }

  // [L,R) x [0,y)

  int prefix_count(int L, int R, Y y) {
    int p = IDX(y);
    if (p == 0) return 0;
    if (p == K) return R - L;
    int cnt = 0;
    for (int d = log - 1; d >= 0; --d) {
      int l0 = bv[d].count(L, 0), r0 = bv[d].count(R, 0);
      int l1 = L + mid[d] - l0, r1 = R + mid[d] - r0;
      if (p >> d & 1) cnt += r0 - l0, L = l1, R = r1;
      if (!(p >> d & 1)) L = l0, R = r0;
    }
    return cnt;
  }

  // [L,R) x [y1,y2)

  int count(int L, int R, Y y1, Y y2) {
    return prefix_count(L, R, y2) - prefix_count(L, R, y1);
  }

  // [L,R) x [0,y)

  pair<int, T> prefix_count_and_prod(int L, int R, Y y) {
    int p = IDX(y);
    if (p == 0) return {0, Mono::unit()};
    if (p == K) return {R - L, seg[log].prod(L, R)};
    int cnt = 0;
    T t = Mono::unit();
    for (int d = log - 1; d >= 0; --d) {
      int l0 = bv[d].count(L, 0), r0 = bv[d].count(R, 0);
      int l1 = L + mid[d] - l0, r1 = R + mid[d] - r0;
      if (p >> d & 1) {
        cnt += r0 - l0, t = Mono::op(t, seg[d].prod(l0, r0)), L = l1, R = r1;
      }
      if (!(p >> d & 1)) L = l0, R = r0;
    }
    return {cnt, t};
  }

  // [L,R) x [y1,y2)

  pair<int, T> count_and_prod(int L, int R, Y y1, Y y2) {
    if constexpr (has_inverse<Mono>::value) {
      auto [c1, t1] = prefix_count_and_prod(L, R, y1);
      auto [c2, t2] = prefix_count_and_prod(L, R, y2);
      return {c2 - c1, Mono::op(Mono::inverse(t1), t2)};
    }
    int lo = IDX(y1), hi = IDX(y2), cnt = 0;
    T t = Mono::unit();
    auto dfs = [&](auto& dfs, int d, int L, int R, int a, int b) -> void {
      assert(b - a == (1 << d));
      if (hi <= a || b <= lo) return;
      if (lo <= a && b <= hi) {
        cnt += R - L, t = Mono::op(t, seg[d].prod(L, R));
        return;
      }
      --d;
      int c = (a + b) / 2;
      int l0 = bv[d].count(L, 0), r0 = bv[d].count(R, 0);
      int l1 = L + mid[d] - l0, r1 = R + mid[d] - r0;
      dfs(dfs, d, l0, r0, a, c), dfs(dfs, d, l1, r1, c, b);
    };
    dfs(dfs, log, L, R, 0, 1 << log);
    return {cnt, t};
  }

  // [L,R) x [y1,y2)

  T prefix_prod(int L, int R, Y y) { return prefix_count_and_prod(L, R, y).se; }
  // [L,R) x [y1,y2)

  T prod(int L, int R, Y y1, Y y2) { return count_and_prod(L, R, y1, y2).se; }
  T prod_all(int L, int R) { return seg[log].prod(L, R); }

  Y kth(int L, int R, int k) {
    assert(0 <= k && k < R - L);
    int p = 0;
    for (int d = log - 1; d >= 0; --d) {
      int l0 = bv[d].count(L, 0), r0 = bv[d].count(R, 0);
      int l1 = L + mid[d] - l0, r1 = R + mid[d] - r0;
      if (k < r0 - l0) {
        L = l0, R = r0;
      } else {
        k -= r0 - l0, L = l1, R = r1, p |= 1 << d;
      }
    }
    return ItoY[p];
  }

  // y 以上最小 OR infty<Y>

  Y next(int L, int R, Y y) {
    int k = IDX(y);
    int p = K;

    auto dfs = [&](auto& dfs, int d, int L, int R, int a, int b) -> void {
      if (p <= a || L == R || b <= k) return;
      if (d == 0) {
        chmin(p, a);
        return;
      }
      --d;
      int c = (a + b) / 2;
      int l0 = bv[d].count(L, 0), r0 = bv[d].count(R, 0);
      int l1 = L + mid[d] - l0, r1 = R + mid[d] - r0;
      dfs(dfs, d, l0, r0, a, c), dfs(dfs, d, l1, r1, c, b);
    };
    dfs(dfs, log, L, R, 0, 1 << log);
    return (p == K ? infty<Y> : ItoY[p]);
  }

  // y 以下最大 OR -infty<T>

  Y prev(int L, int R, Y y) {
    int k = IDX(y + 1);
    int p = -1;
    auto dfs = [&](auto& dfs, int d, int L, int R, int a, int b) -> void {
      if (b - 1 <= p || L == R || k <= a) return;
      if (d == 0) {
        chmax(p, a);
        return;
      }
      --d;
      int c = (a + b) / 2;
      int l0 = bv[d].count(L, 0), r0 = bv[d].count(R, 0);
      int l1 = L + mid[d] - l0, r1 = R + mid[d] - r0;
      dfs(dfs, d, l1, r1, c, b), dfs(dfs, d, l0, r0, a, c);
    };
    dfs(dfs, log, L, R, 0, 1 << log);
    return (p == -1 ? -infty<Y> : ItoY[p]);
  }

  Y median(bool UPPER, int L, int R) {
    assert(0 <= L && L < R && R <= n);
    int k = (UPPER ? (R - L) / 2 : (R - L - 1) / 2);
    return kth(L, R, k);
  }

  pair<Y, T> kth_value_and_prod(int L, int R, int k) {
    assert(0 <= k && k <= R - L);
    if (k == R - L) return {infty<Y>, seg[log].prod(L, R)};
    int p = 0;
    T t = Mono::unit();
    for (int d = log - 1; d >= 0; --d) {
      int l0 = bv[d].count(L, 0), r0 = bv[d].count(R, 0);
      int l1 = L + mid[d] - l0, r1 = R + mid[d] - r0;
      if (k < r0 - l0) {
        L = l0, R = r0;
      } else {
        t = Mono::op(t, seg[d].prod(l0, r0)), k -= r0 - l0, L = l1, R = r1,
        p |= 1 << d;
      }
    }
    t = Mono::op(t, seg[0].prod(L, L + k));
    return {ItoY[p], t};
  }

  T prod_index_range(int L, int R, int k1, int k2) {
    static_assert(has_inverse<Mono>::value);
    T t1 = kth_value_and_prod(L, R, k1).se;
    T t2 = kth_value_and_prod(L, R, k2).se;
    return Mono::op(Mono::inverse(t1), t2);
  }

  // [L,R) x [0,y) での check(cnt, prod) が true となる最大の (cnt,prod)

  template <typename F>
  pair<int, T> max_right(F check, int L, int R) {
    int cnt = 0;
    T t = Mono::unit();
    assert(check(0, Mono::unit()));
    if (check(R - L, seg[log].prod(L, R))) {
      return {R - L, seg[log].prod(L, R)};
    }
    for (int d = log - 1; d >= 0; --d) {
      int l0 = bv[d].count(L, 0), r0 = bv[d].count(R, 0);
      int l1 = L + mid[d] - l0, r1 = R + mid[d] - r0;
      int cnt1 = cnt + r0 - l0;
      T t1 = Mono::op(t, seg[d].prod(l0, r0));
      if (check(cnt1, t1)) {
        cnt = cnt1, t = t1, L = l1, R = r1;
      } else {
        L = l0, R = r0;
      }
    }
    return {cnt, t};
  }

  void set(int i, T t) {
    assert(0 <= i && i < n);
    int L = i, R = i + 1;
    seg[log].set(L, t);
    for (int d = log - 1; d >= 0; --d) {
      int l0 = bv[d].count(L, 0), r0 = bv[d].count(R, 0);
      int l1 = L + mid[d] - l0, r1 = R + mid[d] - r0;
      if (l0 < r0) L = l0, R = r0;
      if (l0 == r0) L = l1, R = r1;
      seg[d].set(L, t);
    }
  }
  void multiply(int i, T t) {
    assert(0 <= i && i < n);
    int L = i, R = i + 1;
    seg[log].multiply(L, t);
    for (int d = log - 1; d >= 0; --d) {
      int l0 = bv[d].count(L, 0), r0 = bv[d].count(R, 0);
      int l1 = L + mid[d] - l0, r1 = R + mid[d] - r0;
      if (l0 < r0) L = l0, R = r0;
      if (l0 == r0) L = l1, R = r1;
      seg[d].multiply(L, t);
    }
  }
};
#line 1 "ds/bit_vector.hpp"
struct Bit_Vector {
  int n;
  vc<pair<u64, u32>> dat;
  Bit_Vector(int n) : n(n) { dat.assign((n + 127) >> 6, {0, 0}); }
  void set(int i) { dat[i >> 6].fi |= u64(1) << (i & 63); }
  void reset() { fill(all(dat), pair<u64, u32>{0, 0}); }
  void build() {
    FOR(i, len(dat) - 1) dat[i + 1].se = dat[i].se + popcnt(dat[i].fi);
  }
  // [0, k) 内の 1 の個数
  int count(int k, bool f) {
    auto [a, b] = dat[k >> 6];
    int ret = b + popcnt(a & ((u64(1) << (k & 63)) - 1));
    return (f ? ret : k - ret);
  }
  int count(int L, int R, bool f) { return count(R, f) - count(L, f); }
  string to_string() {
    string ans;
    FOR(i, n) ans += '0' + (dat[i / 64].fi >> (i % 64) & 1);
    return ans;
  }
};
#line 1 "ds/index_compression.hpp"
template <typename T>
struct Index_Compression_DISTINCT_SMALL {
  static_assert(is_same_v<T, int>);
  int mi, ma;
  vc<int> dat;
  vc<int> build(vc<int> X) {
    mi = 0, ma = -1;
    if (!X.empty()) mi = MIN(X), ma = MAX(X);
    dat.assign(ma - mi + 2, 0);
    for (auto& x: X) dat[x - mi + 1]++;
    FOR(i, len(dat) - 1) dat[i + 1] += dat[i];
    for (auto& x: X) { x = dat[x - mi]++; }
    FOR_R(i, 1, len(dat)) dat[i] = dat[i - 1];
    dat[0] = 0;
    return X;
  }
  int operator()(ll x) { return dat[clamp<ll>(x - mi, 0, ma - mi + 1)]; }
};

template <typename T>
struct Index_Compression_SAME_SMALL {
  static_assert(is_same_v<T, int>);
  int mi, ma;
  vc<int> dat;
  vc<int> build(vc<int> X) {
    mi = 0, ma = -1;
    if (!X.empty()) mi = MIN(X), ma = MAX(X);
    dat.assign(ma - mi + 2, 0);
    for (auto& x: X) dat[x - mi + 1] = 1;
    FOR(i, len(dat) - 1) dat[i + 1] += dat[i];
    for (auto& x: X) { x = dat[x - mi]; }
    return X;
  }
  int operator()(ll x) { return dat[clamp<ll>(x - mi, 0, ma - mi + 1)]; }
};

template <typename T>
struct Index_Compression_SAME_LARGE {
  vc<T> dat;
  vc<int> build(vc<T> X) {
    vc<int> I = argsort(X);
    vc<int> res(len(X));
    for (auto& i: I) {
      if (!dat.empty() && dat.back() == X[i]) {
        res[i] = len(dat) - 1;
      } else {
        res[i] = len(dat);
        dat.eb(X[i]);
      }
    }
    dat.shrink_to_fit();
    return res;
  }
  int operator()(T x) { return LB(dat, x); }
};

template <typename T>
struct Index_Compression_DISTINCT_LARGE {
  vc<T> dat;
  vc<int> build(vc<T> X) {
    vc<int> I = argsort(X);
    vc<int> res(len(X));
    for (auto& i: I) { res[i] = len(dat), dat.eb(X[i]); }
    dat.shrink_to_fit();
    return res;
  }
  int operator()(T x) { return LB(dat, x); }
};

template <typename T, bool SMALL>
using Index_Compression_DISTINCT =
    typename std::conditional<SMALL, Index_Compression_DISTINCT_SMALL<T>,
                              Index_Compression_DISTINCT_LARGE<T>>::type;
template <typename T, bool SMALL>
using Index_Compression_SAME =
    typename std::conditional<SMALL, Index_Compression_SAME_SMALL<T>,
                              Index_Compression_SAME_LARGE<T>>::type;

// SAME: [2,3,2] -> [0,1,0]
// DISTINCT: [2,2,3] -> [0,2,1]
// (x): lower_bound(X,x) をかえす
template <typename T, bool SAME, bool SMALL>
using Index_Compression =
    typename std::conditional<SAME, Index_Compression_SAME<T, SMALL>,
                              Index_Compression_DISTINCT<T, SMALL>>::type;
#line 2 "alg/monoid/add.hpp"

template <typename E>
struct Monoid_Add {
  using X = E;
  using value_type = X;
  static constexpr X op(const X &x, const X &y) noexcept { return x + y; }
  static constexpr X inverse(const X &x) noexcept { return -x; }
  static constexpr X power(const X &x, ll n) noexcept { return X(n) * x; }
  static constexpr X unit() { return X(0); }
  static constexpr bool commute = true;
};
#line 4 "ds/wavelet_matrix/wavelet_matrix.hpp"

// 静的メソッドinverseの存在をチェックするテンプレート

template <typename, typename = std::void_t<>>
struct has_inverse : std::false_type {};

template <typename T>
struct has_inverse<T, std::void_t<decltype(
                          T::inverse(std::declval<typename T::value_type>()))>>
    : std::true_type {};

struct Dummy_Data_Structure {
  using MX = Monoid_Add<bool>;
  void build(const vc<bool>& A) {}
};

template <typename Y, bool SMALL_Y, typename SEGTREE = Dummy_Data_Structure>
struct Wavelet_Matrix {
  using Mono = typename SEGTREE::MX;
  using T = typename Mono::value_type;
  static_assert(Mono::commute);

  int n, log, K;
  Index_Compression<Y, true, SMALL_Y> IDX;
  vc<Y> ItoY;
  vc<int> mid;
  vc<Bit_Vector> bv;
  vc<SEGTREE> seg;

  Wavelet_Matrix() {}
  Wavelet_Matrix(const vc<Y>& A) { build(A); }
  Wavelet_Matrix(const vc<Y>& A, vc<T>& SUM_Data) { build(A, SUM_Data); }
  template <typename F>
  Wavelet_Matrix(int n, F f) {
    build(n, f);
  }

  template <typename F>
  void build(int m, F f) {
    vc<Y> A(m);
    vc<T> S(m);
    for (int i = 0; i < m; ++i) tie(A[i], S[i]) = f(i);
    build(A, S);
  }

  void build(const vc<Y>& A) { build(A, vc<T>(len(A), Mono::unit())); }
  void build(const vc<Y>& A, vc<T> S) {
    n = len(A);
    vc<int> B = IDX.build(A);
    K = 0;
    for (auto& x: B) chmax(K, x + 1);
    ItoY.resize(K);
    FOR(i, n) ItoY[B[i]] = A[i];
    log = 0;
    while ((1 << log) < K) ++log;
    mid.resize(log), bv.assign(log, Bit_Vector(n));
    vc<int> B0(n), B1(n);
    vc<T> S0(n), S1(n);
    seg.resize(log + 1);
    seg[log].build(S);
    for (int d = log - 1; d >= 0; --d) {
      int p0 = 0, p1 = 0;
      for (int i = 0; i < n; ++i) {
        bool f = (B[i] >> d & 1);
        if (!f) { B0[p0] = B[i], S0[p0] = S[i], p0++; }
        if (f) { bv[d].set(i), B1[p1] = B[i], S1[p1] = S[i], p1++; }
      }
      swap(B, B0), swap(S, S0);
      move(B1.begin(), B1.begin() + p1, B.begin() + p0);
      move(S1.begin(), S1.begin() + p1, S.begin() + p0);
      mid[d] = p0, bv[d].build(), seg[d].build(S);
    }
  }

  // [L,R) x [0,y)

  int prefix_count(int L, int R, Y y) {
    int p = IDX(y);
    if (p == 0) return 0;
    if (p == K) return R - L;
    int cnt = 0;
    for (int d = log - 1; d >= 0; --d) {
      int l0 = bv[d].count(L, 0), r0 = bv[d].count(R, 0);
      int l1 = L + mid[d] - l0, r1 = R + mid[d] - r0;
      if (p >> d & 1) cnt += r0 - l0, L = l1, R = r1;
      if (!(p >> d & 1)) L = l0, R = r0;
    }
    return cnt;
  }

  // [L,R) x [y1,y2)

  int count(int L, int R, Y y1, Y y2) {
    return prefix_count(L, R, y2) - prefix_count(L, R, y1);
  }

  // [L,R) x [0,y)

  pair<int, T> prefix_count_and_prod(int L, int R, Y y) {
    int p = IDX(y);
    if (p == 0) return {0, Mono::unit()};
    if (p == K) return {R - L, seg[log].prod(L, R)};
    int cnt = 0;
    T t = Mono::unit();
    for (int d = log - 1; d >= 0; --d) {
      int l0 = bv[d].count(L, 0), r0 = bv[d].count(R, 0);
      int l1 = L + mid[d] - l0, r1 = R + mid[d] - r0;
      if (p >> d & 1) {
        cnt += r0 - l0, t = Mono::op(t, seg[d].prod(l0, r0)), L = l1, R = r1;
      }
      if (!(p >> d & 1)) L = l0, R = r0;
    }
    return {cnt, t};
  }

  // [L,R) x [y1,y2)

  pair<int, T> count_and_prod(int L, int R, Y y1, Y y2) {
    if constexpr (has_inverse<Mono>::value) {
      auto [c1, t1] = prefix_count_and_prod(L, R, y1);
      auto [c2, t2] = prefix_count_and_prod(L, R, y2);
      return {c2 - c1, Mono::op(Mono::inverse(t1), t2)};
    }
    int lo = IDX(y1), hi = IDX(y2), cnt = 0;
    T t = Mono::unit();
    auto dfs = [&](auto& dfs, int d, int L, int R, int a, int b) -> void {
      assert(b - a == (1 << d));
      if (hi <= a || b <= lo) return;
      if (lo <= a && b <= hi) {
        cnt += R - L, t = Mono::op(t, seg[d].prod(L, R));
        return;
      }
      --d;
      int c = (a + b) / 2;
      int l0 = bv[d].count(L, 0), r0 = bv[d].count(R, 0);
      int l1 = L + mid[d] - l0, r1 = R + mid[d] - r0;
      dfs(dfs, d, l0, r0, a, c), dfs(dfs, d, l1, r1, c, b);
    };
    dfs(dfs, log, L, R, 0, 1 << log);
    return {cnt, t};
  }

  // [L,R) x [y1,y2)

  T prefix_prod(int L, int R, Y y) { return prefix_count_and_prod(L, R, y).se; }
  // [L,R) x [y1,y2)

  T prod(int L, int R, Y y1, Y y2) { return count_and_prod(L, R, y1, y2).se; }
  T prod_all(int L, int R) { return seg[log].prod(L, R); }

  Y kth(int L, int R, int k) {
    assert(0 <= k && k < R - L);
    int p = 0;
    for (int d = log - 1; d >= 0; --d) {
      int l0 = bv[d].count(L, 0), r0 = bv[d].count(R, 0);
      int l1 = L + mid[d] - l0, r1 = R + mid[d] - r0;
      if (k < r0 - l0) {
        L = l0, R = r0;
      } else {
        k -= r0 - l0, L = l1, R = r1, p |= 1 << d;
      }
    }
    return ItoY[p];
  }

  // y 以上最小 OR infty<Y>

  Y next(int L, int R, Y y) {
    int k = IDX(y);
    int p = K;

    auto dfs = [&](auto& dfs, int d, int L, int R, int a, int b) -> void {
      if (p <= a || L == R || b <= k) return;
      if (d == 0) {
        chmin(p, a);
        return;
      }
      --d;
      int c = (a + b) / 2;
      int l0 = bv[d].count(L, 0), r0 = bv[d].count(R, 0);
      int l1 = L + mid[d] - l0, r1 = R + mid[d] - r0;
      dfs(dfs, d, l0, r0, a, c), dfs(dfs, d, l1, r1, c, b);
    };
    dfs(dfs, log, L, R, 0, 1 << log);
    return (p == K ? infty<Y> : ItoY[p]);
  }

  // y 以下最大 OR -infty<T>

  Y prev(int L, int R, Y y) {
    int k = IDX(y + 1);
    int p = -1;
    auto dfs = [&](auto& dfs, int d, int L, int R, int a, int b) -> void {
      if (b - 1 <= p || L == R || k <= a) return;
      if (d == 0) {
        chmax(p, a);
        return;
      }
      --d;
      int c = (a + b) / 2;
      int l0 = bv[d].count(L, 0), r0 = bv[d].count(R, 0);
      int l1 = L + mid[d] - l0, r1 = R + mid[d] - r0;
      dfs(dfs, d, l1, r1, c, b), dfs(dfs, d, l0, r0, a, c);
    };
    dfs(dfs, log, L, R, 0, 1 << log);
    return (p == -1 ? -infty<Y> : ItoY[p]);
  }

  Y median(bool UPPER, int L, int R) {
    assert(0 <= L && L < R && R <= n);
    int k = (UPPER ? (R - L) / 2 : (R - L - 1) / 2);
    return kth(L, R, k);
  }

  pair<Y, T> kth_value_and_prod(int L, int R, int k) {
    assert(0 <= k && k <= R - L);
    if (k == R - L) return {infty<Y>, seg[log].prod(L, R)};
    int p = 0;
    T t = Mono::unit();
    for (int d = log - 1; d >= 0; --d) {
      int l0 = bv[d].count(L, 0), r0 = bv[d].count(R, 0);
      int l1 = L + mid[d] - l0, r1 = R + mid[d] - r0;
      if (k < r0 - l0) {
        L = l0, R = r0;
      } else {
        t = Mono::op(t, seg[d].prod(l0, r0)), k -= r0 - l0, L = l1, R = r1,
        p |= 1 << d;
      }
    }
    t = Mono::op(t, seg[0].prod(L, L + k));
    return {ItoY[p], t};
  }

  T prod_index_range(int L, int R, int k1, int k2) {
    static_assert(has_inverse<Mono>::value);
    T t1 = kth_value_and_prod(L, R, k1).se;
    T t2 = kth_value_and_prod(L, R, k2).se;
    return Mono::op(Mono::inverse(t1), t2);
  }

  // [L,R) x [0,y) での check(cnt, prod) が true となる最大の (cnt,prod)

  template <typename F>
  pair<int, T> max_right(F check, int L, int R) {
    int cnt = 0;
    T t = Mono::unit();
    assert(check(0, Mono::unit()));
    if (check(R - L, seg[log].prod(L, R))) {
      return {R - L, seg[log].prod(L, R)};
    }
    for (int d = log - 1; d >= 0; --d) {
      int l0 = bv[d].count(L, 0), r0 = bv[d].count(R, 0);
      int l1 = L + mid[d] - l0, r1 = R + mid[d] - r0;
      int cnt1 = cnt + r0 - l0;
      T t1 = Mono::op(t, seg[d].prod(l0, r0));
      if (check(cnt1, t1)) {
        cnt = cnt1, t = t1, L = l1, R = r1;
      } else {
        L = l0, R = r0;
      }
    }
    return {cnt, t};
  }

  void set(int i, T t) {
    assert(0 <= i && i < n);
    int L = i, R = i + 1;
    seg[log].set(L, t);
    for (int d = log - 1; d >= 0; --d) {
      int l0 = bv[d].count(L, 0), r0 = bv[d].count(R, 0);
      int l1 = L + mid[d] - l0, r1 = R + mid[d] - r0;
      if (l0 < r0) L = l0, R = r0;
      if (l0 == r0) L = l1, R = r1;
      seg[d].set(L, t);
    }
  }
  void multiply(int i, T t) {
    assert(0 <= i && i < n);
    int L = i, R = i + 1;
    seg[log].multiply(L, t);
    for (int d = log - 1; d >= 0; --d) {
      int l0 = bv[d].count(L, 0), r0 = bv[d].count(R, 0);
      int l1 = L + mid[d] - l0, r1 = R + mid[d] - r0;
      if (l0 < r0) L = l0, R = r0;
      if (l0 == r0) L = l1, R = r1;
      seg[d].multiply(L, t);
    }
  }
};
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